About: Infestation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8308 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 82305 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites is reported, concluding that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels.
Abstract: Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-β-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme β-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-β-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels.
01 Aug 1996-Plant Pathology
TL;DR: During the sensitivity testing of different Brassica species and cultivars, it was found that Chinese cabbage showed a low percentage of infestation in two soils, whilst some oilseed rape and spring oilseed turnip rape cultivars showed high degrees ofinfestation in these soils.
Abstract: During 1986–87 the presence of clubroot in soils sampled from 190 fields was assessed using a bioassay method, based on baiting the soils with Brassica campestris spp. pekinesis cv. Granaat. Clubroot was detected in 148 (72%) of the fields investigated and, on average, 49.2% of the plants were infected according to the bioassay. Subsequent testing of fields in 1990 and 1992 (54 and 81 fields, respectively) where no further Brassica crops had been grown indicated a significant decrease in the degree of infestation to 7.1% in 1992. Clay soils showed, on average, the highest degree of infestation, and high infestation was recorded for a wide range of pH values (5.2–6.6). The highest degree of infestation was recorded on fields where oilseeds were grown five times during the period 1965–85. The results presented show that, in a field with 100% infestation, the level of infestation declined to below the detection level after a period of 17.3 years. The half-life of the spore inoculum was determined to be 3.6 years. During the sensitivity testing of different Brassica species and cultivars, it was found that Chinese cabbage showed a low percentage of infestation in two soils, whilst some oilseed rape and spring oilseed turnip rape cultivars showed high degrees of infestation in these soils.
TL;DR: The type and degree of damage to adult workers of Apis mellifera from infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni during development was investigated and mean weights of infested bees upon emergence as adults were 6·3% to 25% less than for healthy bees.
Abstract: SummaryThe type and degree of damage to adult workers of Apis mellifera from infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni during development was investigated. Mean weights of infested bees upon emergence as adults were 6·3% to 25% less than for healthy bees. Mean % weight loss was correlated at a high level of significance with the number of mites in the cell. Only 6% of infested bees showed obvious physical deformation in the form of wing damage.
01 Jan 1990
01 Jul 2010-Journal of Ecology
TL;DR: One of the largest studies ever conducted on lianas is used to confirm the negative effects of lianaas on tree growth and survival over 10 years, and liana infestation of trees was widespread, dynamic and increasing on BCI.
Abstract: Summary 1. Lianas compete intensely with trees, but few studies have examined long-term effects of liana infestation on tree growth and mortality. We quantified the effects of lianas in tree crowns (n = 2907) and rooted within 2 m of trees (n = 1086) on growth and mortality of 30 tree species from 1995 to 2005 on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, documented liana infestation in tree crowns in 1996 and 2007 to determine the dynamics of liana infestation, and quantified liana infestation in the crowns of 3231 additional canopy trees (d.b.h. ‡20 cm) in 2007 to compare with the same metric determined by previous studies in 1967 and 1980. 2. Severe liana infestation increased tree mortality: 21% of liana-free trees in 1996 had died by 2007, whereas 42% of trees with more than 75% of the crown infested by lianas in 1996 had died by 2007. 3. Liana infestation of tree crowns significantly reduced tree growth, particularly on sun-exposed trees. The proximity of rooted lianas significantly reduced the growth of shaded trees. 4. Liana infestation was dynamic: 10.9% of trees with severe liana infestation in their crowns in 1996 had shed all of their lianas by 2007 and 5.3% of trees with no lianas in their crown in 1996 had severe liana infestation in 2007. 5. Liana infestation was common: lianas were present in 53% of trees of the 30 focal species. Including lianas rooted within 2 m of the tree increased this percentage to 78%. Using both aboveand below-ground measures may provide a better estimate of liana competition than either measure alone. 6. Liana infestation is increasing on BCI. Lianas were present in the crowns of 73.6% of canopy trees (d.b.h. ‡20 cm). Liana canopy infestation was 57% higher than in 1980 and 65% higher than in 1967, which is consistent with reported increases in liana abundance, biomass, and leaf and flower production. 7. Synthesis. We used one of the largest studies ever conducted on lianas to confirm the negative effects of lianas on tree growth and survival over 10 years. Liana infestation of trees was widespread, dynamic and increasing on BCI.
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