About: Inflammasome is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9911 publications have been published within this topic receiving 495940 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0061702 & inflammasomes.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the inflammasome is identified as a caspase-activating complex that comprises caspases-1, casp-5, Pycard/Asc, and NALP1, a Pyrin domain-containing protein sharing structural homology with NODs.
Abstract: Generation of Interleukin (IL)-1beta via cleavage of its proform requires the activity of caspase-1 (and caspase-11 in mice), but the mechanism involved in the activation of the proinflammatory caspases remains elusive. Here we report the identification of a caspase-activating complex that we call the inflammasome. The inflammasome comprises caspase-1, caspase-5, Pycard/Asc, and NALP1, a Pyrin domain-containing protein sharing structural homology with NODs. Using a cell-free system, we show that proinflammatory caspase activation and proIL-1beta processing is lost upon prior immunodepletion of Pycard. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative form of Pycard in differentiated THP-1 cells blocks proIL-1beta maturation and activation of inflammatory caspases induced by LPS in vivo. Thus, the inflammasome constitutes an important arm of the innate immunity.
TL;DR: It is shown that MSU and CPPD engage the caspase-1-activating NALP3 (also called cryopyrin) inflammasome, resulting in the production of active interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in mice deficient in the IL-1β receptor.
Abstract: Development of the acute and chronic inflammatory responses known as gout and pseudogout are associated with the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals, respectively, in joints and periarticular tissues. Although MSU crystals were first identified as the aetiological agent of gout in the eighteenth century and more recently as a 'danger signal' released from dying cells, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying MSU- or CPPD-induced inflammation. Here we show that MSU and CPPD engage the caspase-1-activating NALP3 (also called cryopyrin) inflammasome, resulting in the production of active interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18. Macrophages from mice deficient in various components of the inflammasome such as caspase-1, ASC and NALP3 are defective in crystal-induced IL-1beta activation. Moreover, an impaired neutrophil influx is found in an in vivo model of crystal-induced peritonitis in inflammasome-deficient mice or mice deficient in the IL-1beta receptor (IL-1R). These findings provide insight into the molecular processes underlying the inflammatory conditions of gout and pseudogout, and further support a pivotal role of the inflammasome in several autoinflammatory diseases.
TL;DR: This review will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-σB inhibition.
Abstract: The transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. NF-κB induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines, and also participates in inflammasome regulation. In addition, NF-κB plays a critical role in regulating the survival, activation and differentiation of innate immune cells and inflammatory T cells. Consequently, deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic processes of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition.
TL;DR: It is shown that mitophagy/autophagy blockade leads to the accumulation of damaged, ROS-generating mitochondria, and this in turn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, and may explain the frequent association of mitochondrial damage with inflammatory diseases.
Abstract: An inflammatory response initiated by the NLRP3 inflammasome is triggered by a variety of situations of host 'danger', including infection and metabolic dysregulation. Previous studies suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is negatively regulated by autophagy and positively regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from an uncharacterized organelle. Here we show that mitophagy/autophagy blockade leads to the accumulation of damaged, ROS-generating mitochondria, and this in turn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Resting NLRP3 localizes to endoplasmic reticulum structures, whereas on inflammasome activation both NLRP3 and its adaptor ASC redistribute to the perinuclear space where they co-localize with endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria organelle clusters. Notably, both ROS generation and inflammasome activation are suppressed when mitochondrial activity is dysregulated by inhibition of the voltage-dependent anion channel. This indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome senses mitochondrial dysfunction and may explain the frequent association of mitochondrial damage with inflammatory diseases.
TL;DR: Gasdermin D (Gsdmd) is identified by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspasing-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages to offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and change the understanding of pyroPTosis and programmed necrosis.
Abstract: Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, -4, -5 and -11) are critical for innate defences. Caspase-1 is activated by ligands of various canonical inflammasomes, and caspase-4, -5 and -11 directly recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide, both of which trigger pyroptosis. Despite the crucial role in immunity and endotoxic shock, the mechanism for pyroptosis induction by inflammatory caspases is unknown. Here we identify gasdermin D (Gsdmd) by genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease screens of caspase-11- and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis in mouse bone marrow macrophages. GSDMD-deficient cells resisted the induction of pyroptosis by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide and known canonical inflammasome ligands. Interleukin-1β release was also diminished in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, despite intact processing by caspase-1. Caspase-1 and caspase-4/5/11 specifically cleaved the linker between the amino-terminal gasdermin-N and carboxy-terminal gasdermin-C domains in GSDMD, which was required and sufficient for pyroptosis. The cleavage released the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain that showed intrinsic pyroptosis-inducing activity. Other gasdermin family members were not cleaved by inflammatory caspases but shared the autoinhibition; gain-of-function mutations in Gsdma3 that cause alopecia and skin defects disrupted the autoinhibition, allowing its gasdermin-N domain to trigger pyroptosis. These findings offer insight into inflammasome-mediated immunity/diseases and also change our understanding of pyroptosis and programmed necrosis.
Trending Questions (10)