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Inflammatory bowel disease

About: Inflammatory bowel disease is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36587 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1190387 citation(s). The topic is also known as: IBD & inflammatory bowel disease. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/35079107
31 May 2001-Nature
Abstract: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, are multifactorial conditions of unknown aetiology A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped to chromosome 16 Here we have used a positional-cloning strategy, based on linkage analysis followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, to identify three independent associations for Crohn's disease: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators that is expressed in monocytes These NOD2 variants alter the structure of either the leucine-rich repeat domain of the protein or the adjacent region NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kB; this activating function is regulated by the carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain, which has an inhibitory role and also acts as an intracellular receptor for components of microbial pathogens These observations suggest that the NOD2 gene product confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease by altering the recognition of these components and/or by over-activating NF-kB in monocytes, thus documenting a molecular model for the pathogenic mechanism of Crohn's disease that can now be further investigated more

Topics: NOD2 (62%), Inflammatory bowel disease (61%), Common disease-common variant (61%) more

5,194 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM199704103361506
Peter J. Barnes1, Michael KarinInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, several cytokines recruit activated immune and inflammatory cells to the site of lesions, thereby amplifying and perpetuating the inflammatory state.1 These activated cells produce many other mediators of inflammation. What causes these diseases is still a mystery, but the disease process results from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genes, such as those for atopy in asthma and for HLA antigens in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, may determine a patient's susceptibility to the disease and the disease's severity, but environmental factors, often unknown, . . . more

Topics: Inflammatory bowel disease (58%), Inflammation (53%), Disease (53%) more

4,557 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11582
Luke Jostins1, Stephan Ripke2, Rinse K. Weersma3, Richard H. Duerr4  +102 moreInstitutions (55)
01 Nov 2012-Nature
Abstract: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD. more

3,586 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0706625104
Abstract: The two primary human inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are idiopathic relapsing disorders characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Although several lines of reasoning suggest that gastrointestinal (GI) microbes influence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, the types of microbes involved have not been adequately described. Here we report the results of a culture-independent rRNA sequence analysis of GI tissue samples obtained from CD and UC patients, as well as non-IBD controls. Specimens were obtained through surgery from a variety of intestinal sites and included both pathologically normal and abnormal states. Our results provide comprehensive molecular-based analysis of the microbiota of the human small intestine. Comparison of clone libraries reveals statistically significant differences between the microbiotas of CD and UC patients and those of non-IBD controls. Significantly, our results indicate that a subset of CD and UC samples contained abnormal GI microbiotas, characterized by depletion of commensal bacteria, notably members of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Patient stratification by GI microbiota provides further evidence that CD represents a spectrum of disease states and suggests that treatment of some forms of IBD may be facilitated by redress of the detected microbiological imbalances. more

3,454 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE06005
26 Jul 2007-Nature
Abstract: Recently, substantial advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been made owing to three related lines of investigation. First, IBD has been found to be the most tractable of complex disorders for discovering susceptibility genes, and these have shown the importance of epithelial barrier function, and innate and adaptive immunity in disease pathogenesis. Second, efforts directed towards the identification of environmental factors implicate commensal bacteria (or their products), rather than conventional pathogens, as drivers of dysregulated immunity and IBD. Third, murine models, which exhibit many of the features of ulcerative colitis and seem to be bacteria-driven, have helped unravel the pathogenesis/mucosal immunopathology of IBD. more

3,452 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Severine Vermeire

238 papers, 25K citations

Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet

233 papers, 10.9K citations

Jean-Frederic Colombel

219 papers, 27.7K citations

Silvio Danese

201 papers, 10.8K citations

William J. Sandborn

181 papers, 18.8K citations

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