About: Information needs is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15633 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 293987 citation(s).
01 May 1986-Management Science
Abstract: This paper answers the question, "Why do organizations process information?" Uncertainty and equivocality are defined as two forces that influence information processing in organizations. Organization structure and internal systems determine both the amount and richness of information provided to managers. Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment. One implication for managers is that a major problem is lack of clarity, not lack of data. The models indicate how organizations can be designed to provide information mechanisms to both reduce uncertainty and resolve equivocality.
Topics: Information needs (62%), Organizational information theory (61%), Information quality (60%) ...read more
01 Mar 1979-Harvard Business Review
Abstract: Identification of information needs of top management is discussed in this article by comparing four methods now in use with a new approach, "identification of critical success factors," developed at the Sloan School of Management. The author argues that the CSF method, implemented through a series of two to three interview sessions, helps top management define its own current information needs. Critical success factors are those performance factors which must receive the on-going attention of management if the company is to remain competitive. While not intended for strategic planning purposes, the identification of critical success factors can help top management by: (1) determining where management attention should be directed; (2) developing measures for critical success factors; and (3) determining the amount of information required and thus limiting gathering unnecessary data. The author concludes that the CSF method is both effective and efficient and should be seriously considered by top management as an important tool in assessing data needs.
Topics: Critical success factor (64%), Information needs (58%), Information system (55%) ...read more
Andrei Z. Broder1•Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2002-
Abstract: Classic IR (information retrieval) is inherently predicated on users searching for information, the so-called "information need". But the need behind a web search is often not informational -- it might be navigational (give me the url of the site I want to reach) or transactional (show me sites where I can perform a certain transaction, e.g. shop, download a file, or find a map). We explore this taxonomy of web searches and discuss how global search engines evolved to deal with web-specific needs.
Carol Collier Kuhlthau1•Institutions (1)
Abstract: The article discusses the users’ perspective of information seeking. A model of the information search process is presented derived from a series of five studies investigating common experiences of users in information seeking situations. The cognitive and affective aspects of the process of information seeking suggest a gap between the users’ natural process of information use and the information system and intermediaries’ traditional patterns of information provision.
Topics: Information seeking (76%), Collaborative information seeking (72%), Information search process (71%) ...read more
01 Jun 1981-Administrative Science Quarterly
Abstract: We are grateful for the comments of Kenneth Arrow, Kennette Benedict, Robert Biller, David Brereton, Louise Comfort, Jerry Feldman, Victor Fuchs, Anne Miner, J. Rounds, Alan Saltzstein, Guje Sevon, and J. Serge Taylor; for the assistance of Julia Ball; and for grants from the Spencer Foundation, Brookings Institution, Hoover Institution, and National Institute of Education. Formal theories of rational choice suggest that information about the possible consequences of alternative actions will be sought and used only if the precision, relevance, and reliability of the information are compatible with its cost. Empirical studies of information in organizations portray a pattern that is hard to rationalize in such terms. In particular, organizations systematically gather more information than they use, yet continue to ask for more. We suggest that this behavior is a consequence of some ways in which organizational settings for information use differ from those anticipated in a simple decision-theory vision. In particular, the use of information is embedded in social normsthat make it highly symbolic. Some of the implications of such a pattern of information use are discussed.