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Information technology

About: Information technology is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 53966 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 894134 citation(s). The topic is also known as: IT & I.T..
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01 Oct 1992-
Abstract: The business environment of the 1990s demands significant changes in the way we do business. Simply formulating strategy is no longer sufficient; we must also design the processes to implement it effectively. The key to change is process innovation, a revolutionary new approach that fuses information technology and human resource management to improve business performance. The cornerstone to process innovation's dramatic results is information technology--a largely untapped resource, but a crucial "enabler" of process innovation. In turn, only a challenge like process innovation affords maximum use of information technology's potential. Davenport provides numerous examples of firms that have succeeded or failed in combining business change and technology initiatives. He also highlights the roles of new organizational structures and human resource programs in developing process innovation. Process innovation is quickly becoming the byword for industries ready to pull their companies out of modest growth patterns and compete effectively in the world marketplace.

4,470 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Dale L. Goodhue1, Ron Thompson2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This research highlights the importance of the fit between technologies and users' tasks in achieving individual performance impacts from information technology and suggests that task-technology fit when decomposed into its more detailed components, could be the basis for a strong diagnostic tool to evaluate whether information systems and services in a given organization are meeting user needs.
Abstract: A key concern in Information Systems (IS) research has been to better understand the linkage between information systems and individual performance. The research reported in this study has two primary objectives: (1) to propose a comprehensive theoretical model that incorporates valuable insights from two complementary streams of research, and (2) to empirically test the core of the model. At the heart of the new model is the assertion that for an information technology to have a positive impact on individual performance, the technology: (1) must be utilized and (2) must be a good fit with the tasks it supports. This new model is moderately supported by an analysis of data from over 600 individuals in two companies. This research highlights the importance of the fit between technologies and users' tasks in achieving individual performance impacts from information technology. It also suggests that task-technology fit when decomposed into its more detailed components, could be the basis for a strong diagnostic tool to evaluate whether information systems and services in a given organization are meeting user needs.

4,373 citations

Posted Content
Wanda J. Orlikowski1, Jack J. Baroudi2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: It is suggested that much can be gained if a plurality of research perspectives is effectively employed to investigate information systems phenomena and that there exist other philosophical assumptions that can inform studies of the relationships between information technology, people, and organizations.
Abstract: We examined 155 behavioral information systems research articles published from 1983-1988and found that while this research is not rooted in a single overarching theoretical perspective itdoes exhibit a single set of philosophical assumptions about the nature of valid evidence andthe phenomena of interest to information systems researchers. We argue in this paper that thesephilosophical assumptions draw on the natural science tradition, and hence may not always beappropriate for inquiry into the relationships between information technology and people or organizations. In particular, we suggest that the development and use of information technologywithin organizations is inherently processual and contextual, and that these characteristics are notalways adequately captured by the philosophical assumptions prevalent in information systemsresearch. Positing social process as central to information systems phenomena asserts theimportance of studying the ongoing interactions among people, information technology andorganizations, as these are situated historically and contextually.We argue in this paper that the dominant research perspective in information systems research isnot well-equipped to deal with situated interactions over time, and propose additional researchphilosophies to augment the one currently favored by behavioral information systemsresearchers. We outline the features of such additional research perspectives, the interpretive andthe critical, providing empirical examples to illustrate how and when they may be useful. Weconclude that multiple research perspectives can usefully be employed within the informationsystems community to enrich understanding of behavioral information systems phenomena.

3,977 citations

25 Aug 2011-
Abstract: This paper develops a new theoretical model with which to examine the interaction between technology and organizations. Early research studies assumed technology to be an objective, external force that would have deterministic impacts on organizational properties such as structure. Later researchers focused on the human aspect of technology, seeing it as the outcome of strategic choice and social action. This paper suggests that either view is incomplete, and proposes a reconceptualization of technology that takes both perspectives into account. A theoretical model—the structurational model of technology—is built on the basis of this new conceptualization, and its workings explored through discussion of a field study of information technology. The paper suggests that the reformulation of the technology concept and the structurational model of technology allow a deeper and more dialectical understanding of the interaction between technology and organizations. This understanding provides insight into the li...

3,971 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Wanda J. Orlikowski1Institutions (1)
Abstract: As both technologies and organizations undergo dramatic changes in form and function, organizational researchers are increasingly turning to concepts of innovation, emergence, and improvisation to help explain the new ways of organizing and using technology evident in practice. With a similar intent, I propose an extension to the structurational perspective on technology that develops a practice lens to examine how people, as they interact with a technology in their ongoing practices, enact structures which shape their emergent and situated use of that technology. Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment enables a deeper understanding of the constitutive role of social practices in the ongoing use and change of technologies in the workplace. After developing this lens, I offer an example of its use in research, and then suggest some implications for the study of technology in organizations.

3,827 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years