Infrared dark cloud
About: Infrared dark cloud is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 232 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 13800 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
20 Jun 1994-The Astrophysical Journal
TL;DR: In this paper, an automatic, objective routine for analyzing the clumpy structure in a spectral line position-position-velocity data cube is described, which works by first contouring the data at a multiple of the rms noise of the observations, then searching for peaks of emission which locate the clumps, and then following them down to lower intensities.
Abstract: We descibe an automatic, objective routine for analyzing the clumpy structure in a spectral line position-position-velocity data cube. The algorithm works by first contouring the data at a multiple of the rms noise of the observations, then searches for peaks of emission which locate the clumps, and then follows them down to lower intensities. No a proiri clump profile is assumed. By creating simulated data, we test the performance of the algorithm and show that a contour map most accurately depicts internal structure at a contouring interval equal to twice the rms noise of the map. Blending of clump emission leads to small errors in mass and size determinations and in severe cases can result in a number of clumps being misidentified as a single unit, flattening the measured clump mass spectrum. The algorithm is applied to two real data sets as an example of its use. The Rosette molecular cloud is a 'typical' star-forming cloud, but in the Maddalena molecular cloud high-mass star formation is completely absent. Comparison of the two clump lists generated by the algorithm show that on a one-to-one basis the clumps in the star-forming cloud have higher peak temperatures, higher average densities, and are more gravitationally bound than in the non-star-forming cloud. Collective properties of the clumps, such as temperature-size-line-width-mass relations appear very similar, however. Contrary to the initial results reported in a previous paper (Williams & Blitz 1993), we find that the current, more thoroughly tes ted analysis finds no significant difference in the clump mass spectrum of the two clouds.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss recent progress in their study, including the newly discovered IR dark clouds that are likely precursors to stellar clusters, and provide a unique glimpse of the conditions prior to stellar birth.
Abstract: Cold dark clouds are nearby members of the densest and coldest phase in the Galactic interstellar medium, and represent the most accessible sites where stars like our Sun are currently being born. In this review we discuss recent progress in their study, including the newly discovered IR dark clouds that are likely precursors to stellar clusters. At large scales, dark clouds present filamentary mass distributions with motions dominated by supersonic turbulence. At small, subparsec scales, a population of subsonic starless cores provides a unique glimpse of the conditions prior to stellar birth. Recent studies of starless cores reveal a combination of simple physical properties together with a complex chemical structure dominated by the freeze-out of molecules onto cold dust grains. Elucidating this combined structure is both an observational and theoretical challenge whose solution will bring us closer to understanding how molecular gas condenses to form stars.
TL;DR: MIPSGAL as discussed by the authors is a 278 deg^2 survey of the inner Galactic plane using the Multiband Infrared Photometer for Spitzer aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Abstract: MIPSGAL is a 278 deg^2 survey of the inner Galactic plane using the Multiband Infrared Photometer for Spitzer aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The survey field was imaged in two passbands, 24 and 70 μm with resolutions of 6″ and 18″, respectively. The survey was designed to provide a uniform, well-calibrated and well-characterized data set for general inquiry of the inner Galactic plane and as a longer-wavelength complement to the shorter-wavelength Spitzer survey of the Galactic plane: Galactic Plane Infrared Mapping Survey Extraordinaire. The primary science drivers of the current survey are to identify all high-mass (M > 5 M⊙) protostars in the inner Galactic disk and to probe the distribution, energetics, and properties of interstellar dust in the Galactic disk. The observations were planned to minimize data artifacts due to image latents at 24 μm and to provide full coverage at 70 μm. Observations at ecliptic latitudes within 15° of the ecliptic plane were taken at multiple epochs to help reject asteroids. The data for the survey were collected in three epochs, 2005 September–October, 2006 April, and 2006 October with all of the data available to the public. The estimated point-source sensitivities of the survey are 2 and 75 mJy (3 σ) at 24 and 70 μm, respectively. Additional data processing was needed to mitigate image artifacts due to bright sources at 24 μm and detector responsivity variations at 70 μm due to the large dynamic range of the Galactic plane. Enhanced data products including artifact-mitigated mosaics and point-source catalogs are being produced with the 24 μm mosaics already publicly available from the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Some preliminary results using the enhanced data products are described.
10 Apr 2006-The Astrophysical Journal
TL;DR: In this article, the authors found that IRDCs represent an earlier evolutionary phase in high-mass star formation and that they contain many compact cores and have the same sizes and masses as molecular clumps associated with young clusters, supporting the idea that all stars may form in such clumps.
Abstract: Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are dense molecular clouds seen as extinction features against the bright mid-infrared Galactic background. Millimeter continuum maps toward 38 IRDCs reveal extended cold dust emission to be associated with each of the IRDCs. IRDCs range in morphology from filamentary to compact and have masses of 120 to 16,000 M?, with a median mass of ~940 M?. Each IRDC contains at least one compact (?0.5 pc) dust core and most show multiple cores. We find 140 cold millimeter cores unassociated with MSX 8 ?m emission. The core masses range from 10 to 2100 M?, with a median mass of ~120 M?. The slope of the IRDC core mass spectrum (? ~ 2.1 ? 0.4) is similar to that of the stellar IMF. Assuming that each core will form a single star, the majority of the cores will form OB stars. IRDC cores have similar sizes, masses, and densities as hot cores associated with individual, young high-mass stars, but they are much colder. We therefore suggest that IRDC represent an earlier evolutionary phase in high-mass star formation. In addition, because IRDCs contain many compact cores and have the same sizes and masses as molecular clumps associated with young clusters, we suggest that IRDCs are the cold precursors to star clusters. Indeed, an estimate of the star formation rate within molecular clumps with similar properties to IRDCs (~2 M? yr-1) is comparable to the global star formation rate in the Galaxy, supporting the idea that all stars may form in such clumps.
13 Nov 2008-The Astronomical Journal
TL;DR: In this paper, a catalog of extended green objects (EGOs) is presented, including integrated flux density measurements at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE).
Abstract: Using images from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), we have identified more than 300 extended 4.5 μm sources (Extended Green Objects (EGOs), for the common coding of the [4.5] band as green in three-color composite InfraRed Array Camera images). We present a catalog of these EGOs, including integrated flux density measurements at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm from GLIMPSE and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer Galactic Plane Survey. The average angular separation between a source in our sample and the nearest IRAS point source is greater than 1'. The majority of EGOs are associated with infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), and where high-resolution 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser surveys overlap the GLIMPSE coverage, EGOs and 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers are strongly correlated. Extended 4.5 μm emission is thought to trace shocked molecular gas in protostellar outflows; the association of EGOs with IRDCs and 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers suggests that the extended 4.5 μm emission may pinpoint outflows specifically from massive protostars. The mid-IR colors of EGOs lie in regions of color-color space occupied by young protostars still embedded in infalling envelopes.
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