About: Inlet is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 18595 publications have been published within this topic receiving 114483 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the generation of tidal asymmetries is clarified via numerical integration of the one-dimensional equations for channel geometries characteristic of shallow estuaries, which are illustrated by modeling idealized representations of tidal channels at Nauset Inlet and Wachapreague Inlet, VA.
Abstract: The generation of tidal asymmetries is clarified via numerical integration of the one-dimensional equations for channel geometries characteristic of shallow estuaries. Channels without tidal flats develop a time asymmetry characterized by a longer falling than rising tide. This behavior is enhanced by strong friction and large channel cross-sectional area variability over a tidal cycle. Resulting tidal currents have a shorter, intense flood and a longer, weak ebb (flood-dominant). Addition of tidal flats to the channels can produce a longer rising tide and stronger ebb currents (ebb-dominant), if the area of tidal flats is large enough to overcome the effects of time-variable channel geometry. Weaker friction with flats can also produce this asymmetry. Despite the physical complexity of these systems, essential features of estuarine tidal response can be recovered from one-dimensional models. Shallow estuaries are shown to have a system response leading to stable, uniform senses of tidal asymmetry (either flood- or ebb-dominated, due to phase-locking of forced tidal constituents), with down-channel development in magnitude of asymmetry. These concepts are illustrated by modeling idealized representations of tidal channels at Nauset Inlet, MA, and Wachapreague Inlet, VA, which have flood- and ebb-dominance, respectively.
TL;DR: The results suggest that natural selection promotes the adaptive divergence of lake and stream stickleback, but that the magnitude of divergence can be constrained by gene flow.
Abstract: We investigated the interplay between natural selection and gene flow in the adaptive divergence of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that reside parapatrically in lakes and streams. Within the Misty Lake system (Vancouver Island, British Columbia), stickleback from the inlet stream (flowing into the lake) have fewer gill rakers and deeper bodies than stickleback from the lake—differences thought to facilitate foraging (benthic macroinvertebrates in the stream vs. zooplankton in the open water of the lake). Common-garden experiments dem- onstrated that these differences have a genetic basis. Reciprocal transplant enclosure experiments showed that lake and inlet stickleback grow best in their home environments (although differences were subtle and often not significant). Release-recapture experiments in the inlet showed that lake fish are less well-suited than inlet fish for life in the stream (higher mortality or emigration in lake fish). Morphological divergence in the wild and under common rearing was greater between the lake and the inlet than between the lake and the outlet. Genetic divergence (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites) was greatest between the lake and the upper inlet (1.8 km upstream from the lake), inter- mediate between the lake and the lower inlet (0.9 km upstream), and least between the lake and the outlet stream (1.2 km downstream). Relative levels of gene flow estimated from genetic data showed the inverse pattern. The negative association between morphological divergence and gene flow is consistent with the expectation that gene flow can constrain adaptation. Estimated absolute levels of gene flow also implied a constraint on adaptation in the outlet but not the inlet. Our results suggest that natural selection promotes the adaptive divergence of lake and stream stickleback, but that the magnitude of divergence can be constrained by gene flow.
TL;DR: In this article, the relation between the flow area of a tidal inlet and the tidal prism of that inlet was studied and the relationship between the two was shown to be the same as in this paper.
Abstract: Classical paper on the relation between the flow area of a tidal inlet and the tidal prism of that inlet
TL;DR: The morphological components of ebb-tidal deltas include a main ebb channel flanked by linear bars on either side and a terminal sand lobe at the seaward end as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Tidal inlet sediments make up a significant portion of most barrier island complexes. Inlet-affiliated sedimentary units usually include an ebb-tidal delta (seaward shoal), a flood-tidal delta (landward shoal) and inlet-fill sequences created by inlet migration and recurved spit growth. The morphological components of ebb-tidal deltas include a main ebb channel flanked by linear bars on either side and a terminal sand lobe at the seaward end. This channel is bordered by a platform of sand dominated by swash bars which is separated from adjacent barrier beaches by marginal flood channels. The ebb-delta sand body is coarser-grained than other sedimentary units of the inlet and contains polymodal cross-bedding with a slight ebb dominance. Flood-tidal deltas consist of a flood ramp and bifurcating flood channels o the seaward side, which are dominated by flood currents and flood-oriented sand waves, and ebb shields, ebb spits and spillover lobes on the landward side, which contain an abundance of ebb-oriented bedforms. A proposed stratigraphic sequence for a typical flood-tidal delta contains bidirectional, large-scale crossbedded sand at the base, predominantly large-scale (flood-oriented) crossbedded sand in the middle, and finer-grained tidal flat and marsh sediment at the top. Inlets migrate at rates that vary from a few to several tens of meters per year, depending upon such variables as rate of longshore sediment transport and depth of the inlet. Inlet-fill sequences, which fine upward, contain coarse, bidirectional crossbedded sediments at the base, polydirectional crossbedded sands in the middle, and finer-grained aeolian sand at the top. Both tidal-delta morphology and relative size and abundance of ebb- and flood-tidal deltas are considerably different in different oceanographic settings. Microtidal (tidal range T.R. = 0–2 m) areas tend to have smaller ebb-tidal deltas and larger flood-tidal deltas; whereas, mesotidal (T.R. = 2–4 m) areas show just the opposite trend. Large waves tend to inhibit the development of ebb-tidal deltas and accentuate the growth of flood-tidal deltas.
TL;DR: In this paper, sea surface elevation and horizontal currents over periods ranging from three days to one year, at nine stations within Nauset inlet/estuary, document the non-linear interaction of the off-shore equilibrium tidal constituents.
Abstract: The offshore tide becomes strongly distorted as it propagates into shallow estuarine systems. Observations of sea surface elevation and horizontal currents over periods ranging from three days to one year, at nine stations within Nauset inlet/estuary, document the non-linear interaction of the off-shore equilibrium tidal constituents. Despite strong frictional attenuation within the estuary, the overtides and compound tides of M2, S2 and N2, in particular, reach significant amplitude, resulting in strong tidal distortion. High frequency forced constituents in sea surface are phase-locked, consistently leading the forcing tides by 60–70°, resulting in a persistent distortion where falling tide is longer than rising tide. Forced constituents in currents are more nearly in phase with equilibrium constituents, producing flood currents which are shorter but more intense than ebb currents. A compound fortnightly tide, MSf, modulates the mean water level such that lowest tides occur during neap phase instead of spring phase. This fortnightly tide can be contaminated by storm surge, changing the phase characteristics of this constituent. Implications of the overtides, compound tides, and lower frequency tides on near-bed, suspended and dissolved material transport are profound.
Trending Questions (10)