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Interdigital transducer

About: Interdigital transducer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2706 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 27976 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Immittance, transfer, and scattering characteristics are studied for acoustic surface wave transducers of the interdigital electrode form. Linear network models are used to represent the transducer as a chain of identical three-ports which are acoustically in cascade but electrically in parallel. Transducer operation at acoustic synchronism is described theoretically and compared to current experimental data for transducers operating at 100 MHz and fabricated on lithium niobate. Favorable lithium niobate configurations for efficient, broad-band transducer operation are given. Scattering characteristics as a function of electric load are discussed. Low values of acoustic reflection loss are predicted theoretically and observed experimentally when the electric load and transducer capacitance are in resonance. The frequency dependence of transducer radiation immittance is studied, and the response is found to be analogous to the response of an endfire antenna array.

627 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Nov 2004
TL;DR: Capacitive, inductive, dielectric, piezoacoustic, chemical, biological, and microelectromechanical interdigital sensors and transducers are brought under one umbrella to discuss fabrication techniques, modeling of sensor parameters, application examples, and directions of future research.
Abstract: This review paper focuses on interdigital electrodes-a geometric structure encountered in a wide variety of sensor and transducer designs. Physical and chemical principles behind the operation of these devices vary so much across different fields of science and technology that the common features present in all devices are often overlooked. This paper attempts to bring under one umbrella capacitive, inductive, dielectric, piezoacoustic, chemical, biological, and microelectromechanical interdigital sensors and transducers. The paper also provides historical perspective, discusses fabrication techniques, modeling of sensor parameters, application examples, and directions of future research.

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ahrroct-A method of analysis which uses a combination of analytical and numerical techniques has been developed to obtain an accurate solution to the coupled electromagnetic and acoustic fields set up by an interdigital transducer on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate. Full account is taken of the coupling to bulk modes as well as surface modes, and the solution for the charge on the electrodes includes both electrostatic charge and piezoelectrically regenerated charge. Programs have been written for interdigital arrays with uniform aperture but varying electrode width and pitch and arbitrary electrical connections. The theory is also valid for arbitrary crystal orientations. Generation and detection may be analyzed separately with information being provided on the partition of power into the various acoustic modes and the external load impedance, and the bulk wave radiation patterns are also computed. The program may also be used to find the insertion loss of a pair of transducers. Results are presented for the BleusteinGulyaev orientation of PZT-4 ceramic and the YZ and 41” rotated YX orientations of lithium niobate.

334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The widespread use of interdigital electrodes in such applications as microwave filters, surface acoustic wave devices, electro-optic shutters as well as on chemical and biological sensing and even on the electrical and dielectric characterization of materials requires that we improve our description of their electrical performance. In this paper, we present new analytical expressions for the capacitance between the two comb electrodes of a periodic interdigital capacitive sensor, based on conformal mapping techniques. This proposed model is general and quite independent of the particular application and can be applied for any space and finger width as well as for any number of layers with different thickness and permittivity. The capacitance for a particular sensor configuration is a function of the dielectric permittivity of the materials, the fingers length and of two geometric non-dimensional parameters: (i) the ratio between the space and finger widths; (ii) the ratio between the thickness of the sensitive layer and the spatial sensor wavelength. Comparisons with previously published models as well as with experimental data and finite element analysis were made.

334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A review of sensors based on piezoelectric crystal resonators is presented. The survey focuses on the fundamental resonator modes rather than on the variety of surrounding support configurations in special sensor applications. First, the general properties of vibrating crystal sensors and their inherent superiority are described. The sensor concepts utilizing either homogeneous resonators with temperature and pressure (stress) as primary measurants or composite resonators with areal mass density and viscoelastic properties of the 'foreign' layer as primary measurands are discriminated. A comparison between bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators with respect to their primary sensitivity functions and principal capabilities for sensor applications is given and the importance of recent investigations on Lamb wave and horizontal polarized shear wave (HPLW) interdigital transducer (IDT) resonators is acknowledged. The importance of mode purity for high dynamic range sensors based on resonators and some aspects of the demand on specialized electronics are emphasized. The present state of established sensors based on primary sensitivities, e.g., quartz-crystal thermometers, pressure transducers, thin-film thickness and deposition-rate monitors, viscoelastic layer analysers (crystal/liquid composite resonators) is reviewed. A selection of the most promising recently investigated vibrating crystal sensors utilizing indirect sensitivities is described, including the wide field of analyte-selective coatings and resonator-based immunosensors or immunoassays. Finally, the potential of alternative piezoelectric materials for future sensor developments is briefly discussed.

305 citations

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