Topic

# Interfacial thermal resistance

About: Interfacial thermal resistance is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2299 publications have been published within this topic receiving 62194 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the thermal boundary resistance at interfaces between helium and solids (Kapitza resistance) and thermal boundary resistances at interfaces interfaces between two solids are discussed for temperatures above 0.1 K. The apparent qualitative differences in the behavior of the boundary resistance in these two types of interfaces can be understood within the context of two limiting models of boundary resistance, the acoustic mismatch model, which assumes no scattering, and the diffuse mismatch model that all phonons incident on the interface will scatter.

Abstract: The thermal boundary resistance present at interfaces between helium and solids (Kapitza resistance) and the thermal boundary resistance at interfaces between two solids are discussed for temperatures above 0.1 K. The apparent qualitative differences in the behavior of the boundary resistance at these two types of interfaces can be understood within the context of two limiting models of the boundary resistance, the acoustic mismatch model, which assumes no scattering, and the diffuse mismatch model, which assumes that all phonons incident on the interface will scatter. If the acoustic impedances of the two media in contact are very different, as is the case for helium (liquid or solid) in contact with a solid, then phonon scattering at the interface will reduce the boundary resistance. In the limiting case of diffuse mismatch, this reduction is typically over 2 orders of magnitude. Phonons are very sensitive to surface defects, and therefore the Kapitza resistance is very sensitive to the condition of the interface. For typical solid-solid interfaces, at which the acoustic impedances are less different, the influence of diffuse scattering is relatively small; even for the two limiting cases of acoustic mismatch and diffuse mismatch the predicted boundary resistances differ by very little (\ensuremath{\lesssim} 30%). Consequently, the experimentally determined values are expected to be rather insensitive to the condition of the interface, in agreement with recent observations. Subsurface (bulk) disorder and imperfect physical contact between the solids play far more important roles and led to the irreproducibilities observed in the early measurements of the solid-solid thermal boundary resistance.

2,485 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the status of worldwide research in the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites is reviewed, as well as the relationship between thermal conductivities and the micro- and nano-structure of the composites.

Abstract: Thermally conductive polymer composites offer new possibilities for replacing metal parts in several applications, including power electronics, electric motors and generators, heat exchangers, etc., thanks to the polymer advantages such as light weight, corrosion resistance and ease of processing. Current interest to improve the thermal conductivity of polymers is focused on the selective addition of nanofillers with high thermal conductivity. Unusually high thermal conductivity makes carbon nanotube (CNT) the best promising candidate material for thermally conductive composites. However, the thermal conductivities of polymer/CNT nanocomposites are relatively low compared with expectations from the intrinsic thermal conductivity of CNTs. The challenge primarily comes from the large interfacial thermal resistance between the CNT and the surrounding polymer matrix, which hinders the transfer of phonon dominating heat conduction in polymer and CNT. This article reviews the status of worldwide research in the thermal conductivity of CNTs and their polymer nanocomposites. The dependence of thermal conductivity of nanotubes on the atomic structure, the tube size, the morphology, the defect and the purification is reviewed. The roles of particle/polymer and particle/particle interfaces on the thermal conductivity of polymer/CNT nanocomposites are discussed in detail, as well as the relationship between the thermal conductivity and the micro- and nano-structure of the composites.

2,102 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a methodology is introduced for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of arbitrary particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance in terms of an effective medium approach combined with the essential concept of Kapitza thermal contact resistance.

Abstract: A methodology is introduced for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of arbitrary particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance in terms of an effective medium approach combined with the essential concept of Kapitza thermal contact resistance. Results of the present model are compared to existing models and available experimental results. The proposed approach rediscovers the existing theoretical results for simple limiting cases. The comparisons between the predicted and experimental results of particulate diamond reinforced ZnS matrix and cordierite matrix composites and the particulate SiC reinforced Al matrix composite show good agreement. Numerical calculations of these different sets of composites show very interesting predictions concerning the effects of the particle shape and size and the interfacial thermal resistance.

1,638 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that tunnel contacts can dramatically increase spin injection and solve the problem of the mismatch in the conductivities of a ferromagnetic (FM) metal and a semiconductor microstructure.

Abstract: Theory of electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic (FM) metal into a normal (N) conductor is presented. We show that tunnel contacts (T) can dramatically increase spin injection and solve the problem of the mismatch in the conductivities of a FM metal and a semiconductor microstructure. We also present explicit expressions for the spin-valve resistance of FM-T-N- and FM-T-N-T-FM-junctions with tunnel contacts at the interfaces and show that the resistance includes both positive and negative contributions (Kapitza resistance and injection conductivity, respectively).

1,133 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a model of the thermal conductivity and phonon transport in the direction perpendicular to the film plane of superlattices is established based on solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE).

Abstract: Significant reductions in both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of superlattices, in comparison to the values calculated from the Fourier heat conduction theory using bulk material properties, have been observed experimentally in recent years. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the thermal conductivities of superlattice structures is of considerable current interest for microelectronic and thermoelectric applications. In this work, models of the thermal conductivity and phonon transport in the direction perpendicular to the film plane of superlattices are established based on solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). Different phonon interface scattering mechanisms are considered, including elastic vs inelastic, and diffuse vs specular scattering of phonons. Numerical solution of the BTE yields the effective temperature distribution, thermal conductivity, and thermal boundary resistance (TBR) of the superlattices. The modeling results show that the effective thermal conductivity of superlattices in the perpendicular direction is generally controlled by phonon transport within each layer and the TBR between different layers. The TBR is no longer an intrinsic property of the interface, but depends on the layer thickness as well as the phonon mean free path. In the thin layer limit, phonon transport within each layer is ballistic, and the TBR dominates the effective thermal conductivity of superlattices. Approximate analytical solutions of the BTE are obtained for this thin-film limit. The modeling results based on partially specular and partially diffuse interface scattering processes are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data on GaAs/AlAs and Si/Ge superlattices. From the modeling, it is concluded that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of these superlattices is controlled by diffuse and inelastic scattering processes at interfaces. Results of this work suggest that it is possible to make superlattice structures with thermal conductivity totally different from those of their constituting materials.

1,032 citations