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Interleaved memory

About: Interleaved memory is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15296 publications have been published within this topic receiving 333521 citations. The topic is also known as: Memory interleaving.


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Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: This paper analyzes a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM and proposes simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.
Abstract: The memory subsystem accounts for a significant cost and power budget of a computer system. Current DRAM-based main memory systems are starting to hit the power and cost limit. An alternative memory technology that uses resistance contrast in phase-change materials is being actively investigated in the circuits community. Phase Change Memory (PCM) devices offer more density relative to DRAM, and can help increase main memory capacity of future systems while remaining within the cost and power constraints.In this paper, we analyze a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM.We explore the trade-offs for a main memory system consisting of PCMstorage coupled with a small DRAM buffer. Such an architecture has the latency benefits of DRAM and the capacity benefits of PCM. Our evaluations for a baseline system of 16-cores with 8GB DRAM show that, on average, PCM can reduce page faults by 5X and provide a speedup of 3X. As PCM is projected to have limited write endurance, we also propose simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.

1,451 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2016
TL;DR: This work proposes a novel PIM architecture, called PRIME, to accelerate NN applications in ReRAM based main memory, and distinguishes itself from prior work on NN acceleration, with significant performance improvement and energy saving.
Abstract: Processing-in-memory (PIM) is a promising solution to address the "memory wall" challenges for future computer systems. Prior proposed PIM architectures put additional computation logic in or near memory. The emerging metal-oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has showed its potential to be used for main memory. Moreover, with its crossbar array structure, ReRAM can perform matrix-vector multiplication efficiently, and has been widely studied to accelerate neural network (NN) applications. In this work, we propose a novel PIM architecture, called PRIME, to accelerate NN applications in ReRAM based main memory. In PRIME, a portion of ReRAM crossbar arrays can be configured as accelerators for NN applications or as normal memory for a larger memory space. We provide microarchitecture and circuit designs to enable the morphable functions with an insignificant area overhead. We also design a software/hardware interface for software developers to implement various NNs on PRIME. Benefiting from both the PIM architecture and the efficiency of using ReRAM for NN computation, PRIME distinguishes itself from prior work on NN acceleration, with significant performance improvement and energy saving. Our experimental results show that, compared with a state-of-the-art neural processing unit design, PRIME improves the performance by ~2360× and the energy consumption by ~895×, across the evaluated machine learning benchmarks.

1,197 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 May 1990
TL;DR: A new model of memory consistency, called release consistency, that allows for more buffering and pipelining than previously proposed models is introduced and is shown to be equivalent to the sequential consistency model for parallel programs with sufficient synchronization.
Abstract: Scalable shared-memory multiprocessors distribute memory among the processors and use scalable interconnection networks to provide high bandwidth and low latency communication. In addition, memory accesses are cached, buffered, and pipelined to bridge the gap between the slow shared memory and the fast processors. Unless carefully controlled, such architectural optimizations can cause memory accesses to be executed in an order different from what the programmer expects. The set of allowable memory access orderings forms the memory consistency model or event ordering model for an architecture.This paper introduces a new model of memory consistency, called release consistency, that allows for more buffering and pipelining than previously proposed models. A framework for classifying shared accesses and reasoning about event ordering is developed. The release consistency model is shown to be equivalent to the sequential consistency model for parallel programs with sufficient synchronization. Possible performance gains from the less strict constraints of the release consistency model are explored. Finally, practical implementation issues are discussed, concentrating on issues relevant to scalable architectures.

1,169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both theoretical and practical results show that the memory coherence problem can indeed be solved efficiently on a loosely coupled multiprocessor.
Abstract: The memory coherence problem in designing and implementing a shared virtual memory on loosely coupled multiprocessors is studied in depth. Two classes of algorithms, centralized and distributed, for solving the problem are presented. A prototype shared virtual memory on an Apollo ring based on these algorithms has been implemented. Both theoretical and practical results show that the memory coherence problem can indeed be solved efficiently on a loosely coupled multiprocessor.

1,139 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 May 2000
TL;DR: This paper introduces memory access scheduling, a technique that improves the performance of a memory system by reordering memory references to exploit locality within the 3-D memory structure.
Abstract: The bandwidth and latency of a memory system are strongly dependent on the manner in which accesses interact with the “3-D” structure of banks, rows, and columns characteristic of contemporary DRAM chips. There is nearly an order of magnitude difference in bandwidth between successive references to different columns within a row and different rows within a bank. This paper introduces memory access scheduling, a technique that improves the performance of a memory system by reordering memory references to exploit locality within the 3-D memory structure. Conservative reordering, in which the first ready reference in a sequence is performed, improves bandwidth by 40% for traces from five media benchmarks. Aggressive reordering, in which operations are scheduled to optimize memory bandwidth, improves bandwidth by 93% for the same set of applications. Memory access scheduling is particularly important for media processors where it enables the processor to make the most efficient use of scarce memory bandwidth.

1,009 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202321
202271
20214
20206
201912
201821