About: Interleukin 6 is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7451 publications have been published within this topic receiving 417490 citations. The topic is also known as: IFN-beta-2 & IL6.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A meta-analysis of studies measuring cytokine concentration in patients with major depression reports significantly higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in depressed subjects compared with control subjects, strengthening evidence that depression is accompanied by activation of the IRS.
Abstract: Background Major depression occurs in 4.4% to 20% of the general population. Studies suggest that major depression is accompanied by immune dysregulation and activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS). Our objective was to quantitatively summarize the data on concentrations of specific cytokines in patients diagnosed with a major depressive episode and controls. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies measuring cytokine concentration in patients with major depression, with a database search of the English literature (to August 2009) and a manual search of references. Results Twenty-four studies involving unstimulated measurements of cytokines in patients meeting DSM criteria for major depression were included in the meta-analysis; 13 for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, 9 for interleukin (IL)-1β, 16 for IL-6, 5 for IL-4, 5 for IL-2, 4 for IL-8, 6 for IL-10, and 4 for interferon (IFN)-γ. There were significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α ( p p Conclusions This meta-analysis reports significantly higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in depressed subjects compared with control subjects. While both positive and negative results have been reported in individual studies, this meta-analytic result strengthens evidence that depression is accompanied by activation of the IRS.
TL;DR: The potent action of IL-10 on the macrophage, particularly at the level of monokine production, supports an important role for this cytokine not only in the regulation of T cell responses but also in acute inflammatory responses.
Abstract: IL-10 inhibits the ability of macrophage but not B cell APC to stimulate cytokine synthesis by Th1 T cell clones. In this study we have examined the direct effects of IL-10 on both macrophage cell lines and normal peritoneal macrophages. LPS (or LPS and IFN-gamma)-induced production of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha proteins was significantly inhibited by IL-10 in two macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, IL-10 appears to be a more potent inhibitor of monokine synthesis than IL-4 when added at similar concentrations. LPS or LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-6, or TNF-alpha mRNA was also inhibited by IL-10 as shown by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction or Northern blot analysis. Inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 secretion by IL-10 was less marked in FACS-purified peritoneal macrophages than in the macrophage cell lines. However, IL-6 production by peritoneal macrophages was enhanced by addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies, implying the presence in these cultures of endogenous IL-10, which results in an intrinsic reduction of monokine synthesis after LPS activation. Consistent with this proposal, LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were shown to directly produce IL-10 detectable by ELISA. Furthermore, IFN-gamma was found to enhance IL-6 production by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and this could be explained by its suppression of IL-10 production by this same population of cells. In addition to its effects on monokine synthesis, IL-10 also induces a significant change in morphology in IFN-gamma-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. The potent action of IL-10 on the macrophage, particularly at the level of monokine production, supports an important role for this cytokine not only in the regulation of T cell responses but also in acute inflammatory responses.
TL;DR: Systemic reaction characterized by fever, leukocytosis, increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increases in LeucocyTosis secretion of ACTH and glucocorticoids, and by dramatic changes in the concentration of some plasma ,l' proteins.
Abstract: systemic reaction characterized by fever, leukocytosis, increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increases in Leucocytosis secretion of ACTH and glucocorticoids, activation of Complement activat complement and clotting cascades, decreases in serum levels of iron and zinc, a negative nitrogen balance, and by dramatic changes in the concentration of some plasma ,l' proteins. These proteins are named acute phase proteins. i
TL;DR: It is suggested that myokines may be involved in mediating the health-beneficial effects of exercise and that these in particular are involved in the protection against chronic diseases associated with low-grade inflammation such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: Regular exercise offers protection against all-cause mortality, primarily by protection against cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The latter disorders have been associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation reflected by a two- to threefold elevated level of several cytokines. Adipose tissue contributes to the production of TNF-alpha, which is reflected by elevated levels of soluble TNF-alpha receptors, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and C-reactive protein. We suggest that TNF-alpha rather than IL-6 is the driver behind insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and that IL-6 is a marker of the metabolic syndrome, rather than a cause. During exercise, IL-6 is produced by muscle fibers via a TNF-independent pathway. IL-6 stimulates the appearance in the circulation of other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ra and IL-10 and inhibits the production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. In addition, IL-6 enhances lipid turnover, stimulating lipolysis as well as fat oxidation. We suggest that regular exercise induces suppression of TNF-alpha and thereby offers protection against TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance. Recently, IL-6 was introduced as the first myokine, defined as a cytokine that is produced and released by contracting skeletal muscle fibers, exerting its effects in other organs of the body. Here we suggest that myokines may be involved in mediating the health-beneficial effects of exercise and that these in particular are involved in the protection against chronic diseases associated with low-grade inflammation such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
TL;DR: The mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases.
Abstract: Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases.
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