Topic

# Intermolecular force

About: Intermolecular force is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 19272 publications have been published within this topic receiving 589123 citations. The topic is also known as: IMFs & intermolecular forces.

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01 Jan 1985

TL;DR: The forces between atoms and molecules are discussed in detail in this article, including the van der Waals forces between surfaces, and the forces between particles and surfaces, as well as their interactions with other forces.

Abstract: The Forces between Atoms and Molecules. Principles and Concepts. Historical Perspective. Some Thermodynamic Aspects of Intermolecular Forces. Strong Intermolecular Forces: Covalent and Coulomb Interactions. Interactions Involving Polar Molecules. Interactions Involving the Polarization of Molecules. van der Waals Forces. Repulsive Forces, Total Intermolecular Pair Potentials, and Liquid Structure. Special Interactions. Hydrogen-Bonding, Hydrophobic, and Hydrophilic Interactions. The Forces between Particles and Surfaces. Some Unifying Concepts in Intermolecular and Interparticle Forces. Contrasts between Intermolecular, Interparticle, and Intersurface Forces. van der Waals Forces between Surfaces. Electrostatic Forces between Surfaces in Liquids. Solvation, Structural and Hydration Forces. Steric and Fluctuation Forces. Adhesion. Fluid-Like Structures and Self-Assembling Systems. Micelles, Bilayers, and Biological Membranes. Thermodynamic Principles of Self-Assembly. Aggregation of Amphiphilic Molecules into Micelles, Bilayers, Vesicles, and Biological Membranes. The Interactions between Lipid Bilayers and Biological Membranes. References. Index.

18,048 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown by an extensive benchmark on molecular energy data that the mathematical form of the damping function in DFT‐D methods has only a minor impact on the quality of the results and BJ‐damping seems to provide a physically correct short‐range behavior of correlation/dispersion even with unmodified standard functionals.

Abstract: It is shown by an extensive benchmark on molecular energy data that the mathematical form of the damping function in DFT-D methods has only a minor impact on the quality of the results. For 12 different functionals, a standard "zero-damping" formula and rational damping to finite values for small interatomic distances according to Becke and Johnson (BJ-damping) has been tested. The same (DFT-D3) scheme for the computation of the dispersion coefficients is used. The BJ-damping requires one fit parameter more for each functional (three instead of two) but has the advantage of avoiding repulsive interatomic forces at shorter distances. With BJ-damping better results for nonbonded distances and more clear effects of intramolecular dispersion in four representative molecular structures are found. For the noncovalently-bonded structures in the S22 set, both schemes lead to very similar intermolecular distances. For noncovalent interaction energies BJ-damping performs slightly better but both variants can be recommended in general. The exception to this is Hartree-Fock that can be recommended only in the BJ-variant and which is then close to the accuracy of corrected GGAs for non-covalent interactions. According to the thermodynamic benchmarks BJ-damping is more accurate especially for medium-range electron correlation problems and only small and practically insignificant double-counting effects are observed. It seems to provide a physically correct short-range behavior of correlation/dispersion even with unmodified standard functionals. In any case, the differences between the two methods are much smaller than the overall dispersion effect and often also smaller than the influence of the underlying density functional.

14,151 citations

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Novartis

^{1}TL;DR: A general Amber force field for organic molecules is described, designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens.

Abstract: We describe here a general Amber force field (GAFF) for organic molecules. GAFF is designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens. It uses a simple functional form and a limited number of atom types, but incorporates both empirical and heuristic models to estimate force constants and partial atomic charges. The performance of GAFF in test cases is encouraging. In test I, 74 crystallographic structures were compared to GAFF minimized structures, with a root-mean-square displacement of 0.26 A, which is comparable to that of the Tripos 5.2 force field (0.25 A) and better than those of MMFF 94 and CHARMm (0.47 and 0.44 A, respectively). In test II, gas phase minimizations were performed on 22 nucleic acid base pairs, and the minimized structures and intermolecular energies were compared to MP2/6-31G* results. The RMS of displacements and relative energies were 0.25 A and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These data are comparable to results from Parm99/RESP (0.16 A and 1.18 kcal/mol, respectively), which were parameterized to these base pairs. Test III looked at the relative energies of 71 conformational pairs that were used in development of the Parm99 force field. The RMS error in relative energies (compared to experiment) is about 0.5 kcal/mol. GAFF can be applied to wide range of molecules in an automatic fashion, making it suitable for rational drug design and database searching.

13,615 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an approach to generate electrostatic potential (ESP) derived charges for molecules, which optimally reproduce the intermolecular interaction properties of molecules with a simple two-body additive potential, provided that a suitably accurate level of quantum mechanical calculation is used to derive the ESP around the molecule.

Abstract: We present a new approach to generating electrostatic potential (ESP) derived charges for molecules. The major strength of electrostatic potential derived charges is that they optimally reproduce the intermolecular interaction properties of molecules with a simple two-body additive potential, provided, of course, that a suitably accurate level of quantum mechanical calculation is used to derive the ESP around the molecule. Previously, the major weaknesses of these charges have been that they were not easily transferable between common functional groups in related molecules, they have often been conformationally dependent, and the large charges that frequently occur can be problematic for simulating intramolecular interactions

6,266 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule, and the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R(-6) correction method for density-functional theory calculations.

Abstract: We present a parameter-free method for an accurate determination of long-range van der Waals interactions from mean-field electronic structure calculations. Our method relies on the summation of interatomic C6 coefficients, derived from the electron density of a molecule or solid and accurate reference data for the free atoms. The mean absolute error in the C6 coefficients is 5.5% when compared to accurate experimental values for 1225 intermolecular pairs, irrespective of the employed exchangecorrelation functional. We show that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule. Finally, we analyze the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R � 6 correction method for density-functional theory calculations.

4,825 citations