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Internal transcribed spacer

About: Internal transcribed spacer is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5582 publications have been published within this topic receiving 219712 citations. The topic is also known as: ITS.


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TL;DR: In this paper, two taxon-selective primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit were proposed, which were intended to be specific to fungi and basidiomycetes, respectively.
Abstract: We have designed two taxon-selective primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit. These primers, ITS1-F and ITS4-B, were intended to be specific to fungi and basidiomycetes, respectively. We have tested the specificity of these primers against 13 species of ascomycetes, 14 of basidiomycetes, and 15 of plants. Our results showed that ITS4-B, when paired with either a 'universal' primer ITS1 or the fungal-specific primer ITS1-F, efficiently amplified DNA from all basidiomycetes and discriminated against ascomycete DNAs. The results with plants were not as clearcut. The ITS1-F/ITS4-B primer pair produced a small amount of PCR product for certain plant species, but the quantity was in most cases less than that produced by the 'universal' ITS primers. However, under conditions where both plant and fungal DNAs were present, the fungal DNA was amplified to the apparent exclusion of plant DNA. ITS1-F/ITS4-B preferential amplification was shown to be particularly useful for detection and analysis of the basidiomycete component in ectomycorrhizae and in rust-infected tissues. These primers can be used to study the structure of ectomycorrhizal communities or the distribution of rusts on alternate hosts.

8,128 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation.
Abstract: Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.

4,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A protocol is described for rapidly generating large blocks of 16S rRNA sequence data without isolation of the 16 S rRNA or cloning of its gene, and its phylogenetic usefulness is evaluated by examination of several 17S rRNAs whose gene sequences are known.
Abstract: Although the applicability of small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequences for bacterial classification is now well accepted, the general use of these molecules has been hindered by the technical difficulty of obtaining their sequences. A protocol is described for rapidly generating large blocks of 16S rRNA sequence data without isolation of the 16S rRNA or cloning of its gene. The 16S rRNA in bulk cellular RNA preparations is selectively targeted for dideoxynucleotide-terminated sequencing by using reverse transcriptase and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide primers complementary to universally conserved 16S rRNA sequences. Three particularly useful priming sites, which provide access to the three major 16S rRNA structural domains, routinely yield 800-1000 nucleotides of 16S rRNA sequence. The method is evaluated with respect to accuracy, sensitivity to modified nucleotides in the template RNA, and phylogenetic usefulness, by examination of several 16S rRNAs whose gene sequences are known. The relative simplicity of this approach should facilitate a rapid expansion of the 16S rRNA sequence collection available for phylogenetic analyses.

3,006 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: ITS1‐F/ITS4‐B preferential amplification was shown to be particularly useful for detection and analysis of the basidiomycete component in ectomycorrhizae and in rust‐infected tissues.

1,884 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that the ancestral ITS2 types may have arisen following an ancient interspecific hybridization or gene duplication which occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and related species of Fusarium.

1,764 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023313
2022640
2021181
2020187
2019195
2018218