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Internal wave

About: Internal wave is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8311 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 221331 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Internal_wave.
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23 Feb 1973-
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction and preliminaries 2. Linear internal waves 3. Finite amplitude motions in stably stratified fluids 4. Instability and the production of turbulence 5. Turbulent shear flows in a stratified fluid 6. Buoyant convection from isolated sources 7. Convection from heated surfaces 8. Double-diffusive convection 9. Mixing across density interfaces 10. Internal mixing processes Bibliography and author index Recent publications Subject index.

2,717 citations

01 Jan 1978-
Abstract: Preface Prologue 1. Sound waves 2. One-dimensional waves in fluids 3. Water waves 4. Internal waves Epilogue Bibliography Notation list Author index Subject index.

2,051 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: [1] Atmospheric gravity waves have been a subject of intense research activity in recent years because of their myriad effects and their major contributions to atmospheric circulation, structure, and variability. Apart from occasionally strong lower-atmospheric effects, the major wave influences occur in the middle atmosphere, between ∼ 10 and 110 km altitudes because of decreasing density and increasing wave amplitudes with altitude. Theoretical, numerical, and observational studies have advanced our understanding of gravity waves on many fronts since the review by Fritts [1984a]; the present review will focus on these more recent contributions. Progress includes a better appreciation of gravity wave sources and characteristics, the evolution of the gravity wave spectrum with altitude and with variations of wind and stability, the character and implications of observed climatologies, and the wave interaction and instability processes that constrain wave amplitudes and spectral shape. Recent studies have also expanded dramatically our understanding of gravity wave influences on the large-scale circulation and the thermal and constituent structures of the middle atmosphere. These advances have led to a number of parameterizations of gravity wave effects which are enabling ever more realistic descriptions of gravity wave forcing in large-scale models. There remain, nevertheless, a number of areas in which further progress is needed in refining our understanding of and our ability to describe and predict gravity wave influences in the middle atmosphere. Our view of these unknowns and needs is also offered.

1,914 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It has been suggested (Lindzen, 1967, 1968a, b; Lindzen and Blake, 1971; Hodges, 1969) that turbulence in the upper mesosphere arises from the unstable breakdown of tides and gravity waves. Crudely speaking, it was expected that sufficient turbulence would be generated to prevent the growth of wave amplitude with height (roughly as (basic pressure)−1/2). This work has been extended to allow for the generation of turbulence by smaller amplitude waves, the effects of mean winds on the waves, and the effects of the waves on the mean momentum budget. The effects of mean winds, while of relatively small importance for tides, are crucial for internal gravity waves originating in the troposphere. Winds in the troposphere and stratosphere sharply limit the phase speeds of waves capable of reaching the upper mesosphere. In addition, the existence of critical levels in the mesosphere significantly limits the ability of gravity waves to generate turbulence, while the breakdown of gravity waves contributes to the development of critical levels. The results of the present study suggest that at middle latitudes in winter, eddy coefficients may peak at relatively low altitudes (50 km) and at higher altitudes in summer and during sudden warmings (70–80 km), and decrease with height rather sharply above these levels. Rocket observations are used to estimate momentum deposition by gravity waves. Accelerations of about 100 m/s/day are suggested. Such accelerations are entirely capable of producing the warm winter and cold summer mesopauses.

1,849 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The radiation stresses in water waves play an important role in a variety of oceanographic phenomena, for example in the change in mean sea level due to storm waves (wave “set-up”); the generation of “surf-beats”; the interaction of waves with steady currents; and the steepening of short gravity waves on the crests of longer waves. In previous papers these effects have been discussed rigorously by detailed perturbation analysis. In the present paper a simplified exposition is given of the radiation stresses and some of their consequencies. Physical reasoning, though less rigorous, is used wherever possible. The influence of capillarity on the radiation stresses is fully described for the first time.

1,471 citations

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