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Interval training

About: Interval training is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3201 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 90837 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exercise intensity was an important factor for reversing LV remodeling and improving aerobic capacity, endothelial function, and quality of life in patients with postinfarction heart failure.
Abstract: Background—Exercise training reduces the symptoms of chronic heart failure. Which exercise intensity yields maximal beneficial adaptations is controversial. Furthermore, the incidence of chronic heart failure increases with advanced age; it has been reported that 88% and 49% of patients with a first diagnosis of chronic heart failure are 65 and 80 years old, respectively. Despite this, most previous studies have excluded patients with an age 70 years. Our objective was to compare training programs with moderate versus high exercise intensity with regard to variables associated with cardiovascular function and prognosis in patients with postinfarction heart failure. Methods and Results—Twenty-seven patients with stable postinfarction heart failure who were undergoing optimal medical treatment, including -blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (aged 75.511.1 years; left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction 29%; V u O2peak 13 mL · kg 1 · min 1 ) were randomized to either moderate continuous training (70% of highest measured heart rate, ie, peak heart rate) or aerobic interval training (95% of peak heart rate) 3 times per week for 12 weeks or to a control group that received standard advice regarding physical activity. V u O2peak increased more with aerobic interval training than moderate continuous training (46% versus 14%, P0.001) and was associated with reverse LV remodeling. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes declined with aerobic interval training only, by 18% and 25%, respectively; LV ejection fraction increased 35%, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide decreased 40%. Improvement in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (endothelial function) was greater with aerobic interval training, and mitochondrial function in lateral vastus muscle increased with aerobic interval training only. The MacNew global score for quality of life in cardiovascular disease increased in both exercise groups. No changes occurred in the control group. Conclusions—Exercise intensity was an important factor for reversing LV remodeling and improving aerobic capacity, endothelial function, and quality of life in patients with postinfarction heart failure. These findings may have important implications for exercise training in rehabilitation programs and future studies. (Circulation. 2007;115:3086-3094.)

1,716 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some of the mechanisms responsible for improved skeletal muscle metabolic control and changes in cardiovascular function in response to low‐ volume HIT are reviewed and insight is provided on the utility of low‐volume HIT for improving performance in athletes.
Abstract: Exercise training is a clinically proven, cost-effective, primary intervention that delays and in many cases prevents the health burdens associated with many chronic diseases. However, the precise type and dose of exercise needed to accrue health benefits is a contentious issue with no clear consensus recommendations for the prevention of inactivity-related disorders and chronic diseases. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that high-intensity interval training (HIT)canserveasaneffectivealternatetotraditionalendurance-basedtraining,inducingsimilar or even superior physiological adaptations in healthy individuals and diseased populations, at least when compared on a matched-work basis. While less well studied, low-volume HIT can also stimulate physiological remodelling comparable to moderate-intensity continuous training despite a substantially lower time commitment and reduced total exercise volume. Such findings areimportantgiventhat'lackoftime'remainsthemostcommonlycitedbarriertoregularexercise participation. Here we review some of the mechanisms responsible for improved skeletal muscle metabolic control and changes in cardiovascular function in response to low-volume HIT. We also consider the limited evidence regarding the potential application of HIT to people with, or at risk for, cardiometabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. Finally, we provide insight on the utility of low-volume HIT for improving performance in athletes and highlight suggestions for future research.

1,174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high‐intensity interval training is a time‐efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic adaptations during exercise that are comparable to traditional ET.
Abstract: Low-volume ‘sprint’ interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 ± 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake ( ˙ VO2peak) before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s ‘all out’ Wingate Test (mean power output ∼500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40‐60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited ∼65% ˙ VO2peak (mean power output ∼150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (∼1.5 versus ∼4.5 h) and total training volume (∼225 versus ∼2250 kJ week −1 ) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time-efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic adaptations during exercise that are comparable to traditional ET.

1,056 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-aerobic intensity endurance interval training is significantly more effective than performing the same total work at either lactate threshold or at 70% HRmax, in improving VO2max.
Abstract: HELGERUD, J., K. HKYDAL, E. WANG, T. KARLSEN, P. BERG, M. BJERKAAS, T. SIMONSEN, C. HELGESEN, N. HJORTH, R. BACH, and J. HOFF. Aerobic High-Intensity Intervals Improve VO2max More Than Moderate Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 665-671, 2007. Purpose: The present study compared the effects of aerobic endurance training at different intensities and with different methods matched for total work and frequency. Responses in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), stroke volume of the heart (SV), blood volume, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (CR) were examined. Methods: Forty healthy, nonsmoking, moderately trained male subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) long slow distance (70% maximal heart rate; HRmax); 2) lactate threshold (85% HRmax); 3) 15/15 interval running (15 s of running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 15 s of active resting at 70% HRmax); and 4) 4 4 min of interval running (4 min of running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 3 min of active restingat 70% HRmax). All four training protocols resulted in similar total oxygen consumption and were performed 3 dIwk j1 for 8 wk. Results: High-intensity aerobic interval training resulted in significantly increased VO2max compared with long slow distanceandlactate-thresholdtrainingintensities(P G 0.01). The percentage increases for the 15/15 and 4 4 min groups were 5.5 and 7.2%, respectively, reflecting increases in VO2max from 60.5 to 64.4 mLIkg j1 Imin j1 and 55.5 to 60.4 mLIkg j1 Imin j1 . SV increased significantly by approximately 10% after interval training (P G 0.05). Conclusions: High-aerobic intensity endurance interval training is significantly more effective than performing the same total work at either lactate threshold or at 70% HRmax, in improving VO2max. The changes in VO2max correspond with changes in SV, indicating a close link between the two. Key Words: LACTATE THRESHOLD, AEROBIC POWER, 4 4-MIN INTERVALS, 15/15 TRAINING, STROKE VOLUME, BLOOD VOLUME

1,008 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data demonstrate that SIT is a time‐efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance that are comparable to ET in young active men.
Abstract: Brief, intense exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations comparable to traditional endurance training. However, no study has directly compared these diverse training strategies in a standardized manner. We therefore examined changes in exercise capacity and molecular and cellular adaptations in skeletal muscle after low volume sprint-interval training (SIT) and high volume endurance training (ET). Sixteen active men (21 +/- 1 years, ) were assigned to a SIT or ET group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions over 14 days. Each session consisted of either four to six repeats of 30 s 'all out' cycling at approximately 250% with 4 min recovery (SIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at approximately 65% (ET). Training time commitment over 2 weeks was approximately 2.5 h for SIT and approximately 10.5 h for ET, and total training volume was approximately 90% lower for SIT versus ET ( approximately 630 versus approximately 6500 kJ). Training decreased the time required to complete 50 and 750 kJ cycling time trials, with no difference between groups (main effects, P

997 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021370
2020379
2019366
2018307
2017294