About: Intestinal mucosa is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26743 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1165308 citation(s).
Paul B. Eckburg1, Elisabeth M. Bik2, Charles N. Bernstein3, Elizabeth Purdom1 +7 more•Institutions (4)
10 Jun 2005-Science
Abstract: The human endogenous intestinal microflora is an essential “organ” in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and instructing innate immunity; yet, surprisingly, basic features remain poorly described. We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity. A majority of the bacterial sequences corresponded to uncultivated species and novel microorganisms. We discovered significant intersubject variability and differences between stool and mucosa community composition. Characterization of this immensely diverse ecosystem is the first step in elucidating its role in health and disease.
Abstract: High-performance liquid chromatography is a promising alternative for determining the G+C content of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The method which we evaluated involves enzymatic degradation of the DNA to nucleosides by P1 nuclease and bovine intestinal mucosa alkaline phosphatase, separation of the nucleosides by high-performance liquid chromatography, and calculation of the G+C content from the apparent ratios of deoxyguanosine and thymidine. Because the nucleosides are released from the DNA at different rates, incomplete degradation produces large errors in the apparent G+C content. For partially purified DNA, salts are a major source of interference in degradation. However, when the salts are carefully removed, the preparation and degradation of DNA contribute little error to the determination of G+C content. This method also requires careful selection of the chromatographic conditions to ensure separation of the major nucleosides from the nucleosides of modified bases and precise control of the flow rates. Both of these conditions are achievable with standard equipment and C18 reversed-phase columns. Then the method is precise, and the relative standard deviations of replicate measurements are close to 0.1%. It is also rapid, and a single measurement requires about 15 min. It requires small amounts of sample, and the G+C content can be determined from DNA isolated from a single bacterial colony. It is not affected by contamination with ribonucleic acid. Because this method yields a direct measurement, it may also be more accurate than indirect methods, such as the buoyant density and thermal denaturation methods. In addition, for highly purified DNA, the extent of modification can be determined.
30 Oct 2009-Cell
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is inhabited by hundreds of distinct species of commensal microorganisms that exist in a mutualistic relationship with the host. How commensal microbiota influence the host immune system is poorly understood. We show here that colonization of the small intestine of mice with a single commensal microbe, segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB), is sufficient to induce the appearance of CD4(+) T helper cells that produce IL-17 and IL-22 (Th17 cells) in the lamina propria. SFB adhere tightly to the surface of epithelial cells in the terminal ileum of mice with Th17 cells but are absent from mice that have few Th17 cells. Colonization with SFB was correlated with increased expression of genes associated with inflammation and antimicrobial defenses and resulted in enhanced resistance to the intestinal pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Thus, manipulation of this commensal-regulated pathway may provide new opportunities for enhancing mucosal immunity and treating autoimmune disease.
Topics: Segmented filamentous bacteria (56%), Immune system (54%), Intestinal mucosa (54%) ...read more
21 Jan 2011-Science
Abstract: CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, Tregs were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted Treg cell accumulation. Colonization of mice by a defined mix of Clostridium strains provided an environment rich in transforming growth factor–β and affected Foxp3+ Treg number and function in the colon. Oral inoculation of Clostridium during the early life of conventionally reared mice resulted in resistance to colitis and systemic immunoglobulin E responses in adult mice, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to autoimmunity and allergy.
01 Jul 2010-Physiological Reviews
Abstract: Gut microbiota is an assortment of microorganisms inhabiting the length and width of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. The composition of this microbial community is host specific, evolving throughout an individual's lifetime and susceptible to both exogenous and endogenous modifications. Recent renewed interest in the structure and function of this "organ" has illuminated its central position in health and disease. The microbiota is intimately involved in numerous aspects of normal host physiology, from nutritional status to behavior and stress response. Additionally, they can be a central or a contributing cause of many diseases, affecting both near and far organ systems. The overall balance in the composition of the gut microbial community, as well as the presence or absence of key species capable of effecting specific responses, is important in ensuring homeostasis or lack thereof at the intestinal mucosa and beyond. The mechanisms through which microbiota exerts its beneficial or detrimental influences remain largely undefined, but include elaboration of signaling molecules and recognition of bacterial epitopes by both intestinal epithelial and mucosal immune cells. The advances in modeling and analysis of gut microbiota will further our knowledge of their role in health and disease, allowing customization of existing and future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.