About: Intracellular is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 41451 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1801748 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0005622 & protoplasm.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown here that this morphological change is closely associated with excision of nucleosome chains from nuclear chromatin, apparently through activation of an intracellular, but non-lysosomal, endonuclease.
Abstract: In near-physiological concentrations, glucocorticoid hormones cause the death of several types of normal and neoplastic lymphoid cell, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. One of the earliest structural changes in the dying cell is widespread chromatin condensation, of the type characteristic of apoptosis, the mode of death frequently observed where cell deletion seems to be 'programmed'. It is shown here that this morphological change is closely associated with excision of nucleosome chains from nuclear chromatin, apparently through activation of an intracellular, but non-lysosomal, endonuclease.
TL;DR: Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material.
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis However, in this expanding field, much remains unknown regarding the origin, biogenesis, secretion, targeting and fate of these vesicles
TL;DR: It is shown that micromolar concentrations of H2O2 can induce the expression and replication of HIV‐1 in a human T cell line and suggests that diverse agents thought to activate NF‐kappa B by distinct intracellular pathways might all act through a common mechanism involving the synthesis of ROI.
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide and oxygen radicals are agents commonly produced during inflammatory processes. In this study, we show that micromolar concentrations of H2O2 can induce the expression and replication of HIV-1 in a human T cell line. The effect is mediated by the NF-kappa B transcription factor which is potently and rapidly activated by an H2O2 treatment of cells from its inactive cytoplasmic form. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a well characterized antioxidant which counteracts the effects of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in living cells, prevented the activation of NF-kappa B by H2O2. NAC and other thiol compounds also blocked the activation of NF-kappa B by cycloheximide, double-stranded RNA, calcium ionophore, TNF-alpha, active phorbol ester, interleukin-1, lipopolysaccharide and lectin. This suggests that diverse agents thought to activate NF-kappa B by distinct intracellular pathways might all act through a common mechanism involving the synthesis of ROI. ROI appear to serve as messengers mediating directly or indirectly the release of the inhibitory subunit I kappa B from NF-kappa B.
TL;DR: The results are shown to favour the ferryl ion structure, or an isomer of this structure, for the higher oxidation state, and theHigher oxidation state may provisionally be named ferrylmyoglobin.
Abstract: more acidic solutions, with pH < 7 0, a few seconds elapsed before equilibrium was attained. Taking into account the ionization of the haem-linked group on MetMb and the higher oxidation state, the variation of Kb,. with pH is shown to confirm the conclusion that 2 moles ofH+ are liberated/mole of acidic MetMb. Using 6-1 for the pK of the group in MetMb as established in other studies, the results give apK of75 for the group in the higher oxidation state at 200 and I= 0 04. 3. The variation of KRb, with temperature gives AHO = 10-0 ± 2*0 kcal./g.mol.: if the ionization of the haem-linked group is allowed for, the value 9*0 ± 1.0 kcal./g.mol. is obtained. 4. The dependence of Kob. on ionic strength is in accord with a change in charge from + 1 on MetMb to zero on the higher oxidation state. 5. The results are shown to favour the ferryl ion structure, or an isomer of this structure, for the higher oxidation state. The isomeric structures would, in general, require the presence of another ionizing group in myoglobin, but no evidence for such an ionization could be found. With other direct evidence favouring the ferryl ion structure this is to be preferred, and the higher oxidation state may provisionally be named ferrylmyoglobin.
TL;DR: The results suggest that thapsigargin increases the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ in sensitive cells by an acute and highly specific arrest of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump, followed by a rapid Ca2+.
Abstract: Thapsigargin, a tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, discharges intracellular Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes, as it does in many vertebrate cell types. It appears to act intracellularly, as incubation of isolated rat liver microsomes with thapsigargin induces a rapid, dose-dependent release of stored Ca2+. The thapsigargin-releasable pool of microsomal Ca2+ includes the pools sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and GTP. Thapsigargin pretreatment of microsomes blocks subsequent loading with 45Ca2+, suggesting that its target is the ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump of endoplasmic reticulum. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the demonstration that thapsigargin causes a rapid inhibition of the Ca2(+)-activated ATPase activity of rat liver microsomes, with an identical dose dependence to that seen in whole cell or isolated microsome Ca2+ discharge. The inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum isoform of the Ca2(+)-ATPase is highly selective, as thapsigargin has little or no effect on the Ca2(+)-ATPases of hepatocyte or erythrocyte plasma membrane or of cardiac or skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that thapsigargin increases the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ in sensitive cells by an acute and highly specific arrest of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, followed by a rapid Ca2+ leak from at least two pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ stores. The implications of this mechanism of action for the application of thapsigargin in the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis and possible forms of Ca2+ control are discussed.
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