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Intron

About: Intron is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 23850 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1305164 citation(s). The topic is also known as: introns.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Todd M. Lowe1, Sean R. Eddy1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A program is described, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99-100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases.
Abstract: We describe a program, tRNAscan-SE, which identifies 99-100% of transfer RNA genes in DNA sequence while giving less than one false positive per 15 gigabases. Two previously described tRNA detection programs are used as fast, first-pass prefilters to identify candidate tRNAs, which are then analyzed by a highly selective tRNA covariance model. This work represents a practical application of RNA covariance models, which are general, probabilistic secondary structure profiles based on stochastic context-free grammars. tRNAscan-SE searches at approximately 30 000 bp/s. Additional extensions to tRNAscan-SE detect unusual tRNA homologues such as selenocysteine tRNAs, tRNA-derived repetitive elements and tRNA pseudogenes.

8,707 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Douglas A. Melton1, Paul A. Krieg1, M.R. Rebagliati1, Tom Maniatis1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A simple and efficient method for synthesizing pure single stranded RNAs of virtually any structure is described. This in vitro transcription system is based on the unusually specific RNA synthesis by bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase which initiates transcription exclusively at an SP6 promoter. We have constructed convenient cloning vectors that contain an SP6 promoter immediately upstream from a polylinker sequence. Using these SP6 vectors, optimal conditions have been established for in vitro RNA synthesis. The advantages and uses of SP6 derived RNAs as probes for nucleic acid blot and solution hybridizations are demonstrated. We show that single stranded RNA probes of a high specific activity are easy to prepare and can significantly increase the sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization methods. Furthermore, the SP6 transcription system can be used to prepare RNA substrates for studies on RNA processing (1,5,9) and translation (see accompanying paper).

5,709 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from running RNAmmer on a large set of genomes indicate that the location of rRNAs can be predicted with a very high level of accuracy.
Abstract: The publication of a complete genome sequence is usually accompanied by annotations of its genes. In contrast to protein coding genes, genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are often poorly or inconsistently annotated. This makes comparative studies based on rRNA genes difficult. We have therefore created computational predictors for the major rRNA species from all kingdoms of life and compiled them into a program called RNAmmer. The program uses hidden Markov models trained on data from the 5S ribosomal RNA database and the European ribosomal RNA database project. A pre-screening step makes the method fast with little loss of sensitivity, enabling the analysis of a complete bacterial genome in less than a minute. Results from running RNAmmer on a large set of genomes indicate that the location of rRNAs can be predicted with a very high level of accuracy. Novel, unannotated rRNAs are also predicted in many genomes. The software as well as the genome analysis results are available at the CBS web server.

4,248 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Eric T. Wang1, Rickard Sandberg2, Rickard Sandberg1, Shujun Luo3  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
27 Nov 2008-Nature
TL;DR: An in-depth analysis of 15 diverse human tissue and cell line transcriptomes on the basis of deep sequencing of complementary DNA fragments yielding a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expression suggested common involvement of specific factors in tissue-level regulation of both splicing and polyadenylation.
Abstract: Through alternative processing of pre-messenger RNAs, individual mammalian genes often produce multiple mRNA and protein isoforms that may have related, distinct or even opposing functions. Here we report an in-depth analysis of 15 diverse human tissue and cell line transcriptomes on the basis of deep sequencing of complementary DNA fragments, yielding a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expression. Analyses in which sequence reads are mapped to exon-exon junctions indicated that 92-94% of human genes undergo alternative splicing, 86% with a minor isoform frequency of 15% or more. Differences in isoform-specific read densities indicated that most alternative splicing and alternative cleavage and polyadenylation events vary between tissues, whereas variation between individuals was approximately twofold to threefold less common. Extreme or 'switch-like' regulation of splicing between tissues was associated with increased sequence conservation in regulatory regions and with generation of full-length open reading frames. Patterns of alternative splicing and alternative cleavage and polyadenylation were strongly correlated across tissues, suggesting coordinated regulation of these processes, and sequence conservation of a subset of known regulatory motifs in both alternative introns and 3' untranslated regions suggested common involvement of specific factors in tissue-level regulation of both splicing and polyadenylation.

4,242 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021478
2020457
2019470
2018436
2017529