Topic

# Invariant extended Kalman filter

About: Invariant extended Kalman filter is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7079 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 187702 citation(s).

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01 Apr 1993TL;DR: An algorithm, the bootstrap filter, is proposed for implementing recursive Bayesian filters, represented as a set of random samples, which are updated and propagated by the algorithm.

Abstract: An algorithm, the bootstrap filter, is proposed for implementing recursive Bayesian filters. The required density of the state vector is represented as a set of random samples, which are updated and propagated by the algorithm. The method is not restricted by assumptions of linear- ity or Gaussian noise: it may be applied to any state transition or measurement model. A simula- tion example of the bearings only tracking problem is presented. This simulation includes schemes for improving the efficiency of the basic algorithm. For this example, the performance of the bootstrap filter is greatly superior to the standard extended Kalman filter.

7,559 citations

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30 Mar 1990TL;DR: In this article, the Kalman filter and state space models were used for univariate structural time series models to estimate, predict, and smoothen the univariate time series model.

Abstract: List of figures Acknowledgement Preface Notation and conventions List of abbreviations 1. Introduction 2. Univariate time series models 3. State space models and the Kalman filter 4. Estimation, prediction and smoothing for univariate structural time series models 5. Testing and model selection 6. Extensions of the univariate model 7. Explanatory variables 8. Multivariate models 9. Continuous time Appendices Selected answers to exercises References Author index Subject index.

5,069 citations

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28 Jul 1997TL;DR: It is argued that the ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features of the new filter recommend its use over the EKF in virtually all applications.

Abstract: The Kalman Filter (KF) is one of the most widely used methods for tracking and estimation due to its simplicity, optimality, tractability and robustness. However, the application of the KF to nonlinear systems can be difficult. The most common approach is to use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simply linearizes all nonlinear models so that the traditional linear Kalman filter can be applied. Although the EKF (in its many forms) is a widely used filtering strategy, over thirty years of experience with it has led to a general consensus within the tracking and control community that it is difficult to implement, difficult to tune, and only reliable for systems which are almost linear on the time scale of the update intervals. In this paper a new linear estimator is developed and demonstrated. Using the principle that a set of discretely sampled points can be used to parameterize mean and covariance, the estimator yields performance equivalent to the KF for linear systems yet generalizes elegantly to nonlinear systems without the linearization steps required by the EKF. We show analytically that the expected performance of the new approach is superior to that of the EKF and, in fact, is directly comparable to that of the second order Gauss filter. The method is not restricted to assuming that the distributions of noise sources are Gaussian. We argue that the ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features of the new filter recommend its use over the EKF in virtually all applications.

4,976 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a new sequential data assimilation method is proposed based on Monte Carlo methods, a better alternative than solving the traditional and computationally extremely demanding approximate error covariance equation used in the extended Kalman filter.

Abstract: A new sequential data assimilation method is discussed. It is based on forecasting the error statistics using Monte Carlo methods, a better alternative than solving the traditional and computationally extremely demanding approximate error covariance equation used in the extended Kalman filter. The unbounded error growth found in the extended Kalman filter, which is caused by an overly simplified closure in the error covariance equation, is completely eliminated. Open boundaries can be handled as long as the ocean model is well posed. Well-known numerical instabilities associated with the error covariance equation are avoided because storage and evolution of the error covariance matrix itself are not needed. The results are also better than what is provided by the extended Kalman filter since there is no closure problem and the quality of the forecast error statistics therefore improves. The method should be feasible also for more sophisticated primitive equation models. The computational load for reasonable accuracy is only a fraction of what is required for the extended Kalman filter and is given by the storage of, say, 100 model states for an ensemble size of 100 and thus CPU requirements of the order of the cost of 100 model integrations. The proposed method can therefore be used with realistic nonlinear ocean models on large domains on existing computers, and it is also well suited for parallel computers and clusters of workstations where each processor integrates a few members of the ensemble.

4,357 citations

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01 Oct 2000TL;DR: The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) as discussed by the authors was proposed by Julier and Uhlman (1997) for nonlinear control problems, including nonlinear system identification, training of neural networks, and dual estimation.

Abstract: This paper points out the flaws in using the extended Kalman filter (EKE) and introduces an improvement, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), proposed by Julier and Uhlman (1997). A central and vital operation performed in the Kalman filter is the propagation of a Gaussian random variable (GRV) through the system dynamics. In the EKF the state distribution is approximated by a GRV, which is then propagated analytically through the first-order linearization of the nonlinear system. This can introduce large errors in the true posterior mean and covariance of the transformed GRV, which may lead to sub-optimal performance and sometimes divergence of the filter. The UKF addresses this problem by using a deterministic sampling approach. The state distribution is again approximated by a GRV, but is now represented using a minimal set of carefully chosen sample points. These sample points completely capture the true mean and covariance of the GRV, and when propagated through the true nonlinear system, captures the posterior mean and covariance accurately to the 3rd order (Taylor series expansion) for any nonlinearity. The EKF in contrast, only achieves first-order accuracy. Remarkably, the computational complexity of the UKF is the same order as that of the EKF. Julier and Uhlman demonstrated the substantial performance gains of the UKF in the context of state-estimation for nonlinear control. Machine learning problems were not considered. We extend the use of the UKF to a broader class of nonlinear estimation problems, including nonlinear system identification, training of neural networks, and dual estimation problems. In this paper, the algorithms are further developed and illustrated with a number of additional examples.

3,445 citations