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About: Iodate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2284 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 37333 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The glycerol is quantitatively oxidized to formaldehyde by periodic acid, using a five minute oxidation period to minimize oxidation of glucose. The iodate and periodate are reduced to iodide by a ... more

416 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yves Bichsel1, Urs von Gunten1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In aqueous oxidative processes with ozone (O3), chlorine, or chloramine, naturally occurring iodide (I-) can easily be oxidized to hypoiodous acid (HOI) which can react with natural organic matter (NOM) or be further oxidized to iodate (IO3-). Such processes can be of importance for the geochemistry of iodine and for the fate of iodine in industrial processes (drinking water treatment, aquacultures). Whereas IO3- is the desired sink for iodine in drinking waters, iodoorganic compounds (especially iodoform, CHI3) are problematic due to their taste and odor. To assess the sink for iodine during oxidation of natural waters, we determined the kinetics of several oxidation reactions of HOI. Ozone, chlorine, and chloramine have been tested as potential oxidants. Ozone oxidized both HOI and hypoiodite (OI-) (kO3+HOI = 3.6 × 104 M-1 s-1; kO3+OI− = 1.6 × 106 M-1 s-1) in a fast reaction. Chlorine species oxidized HOI by a combination of second- and third-order reactions (k‘ ‘HOCl+HOI = 8.2 M-1 s-1; k‘ ‘‘HOCl+HOI = ... more

308 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ronald O. Rahn1Institutions (1)
Abstract: — A solution of 0.6 M iodide and 0.1 M iodate in 0.01 M borate buffer (pH 9.25) can be used as a chemical actinometer to measure the incident fluence from a low-pressure mercury lamp that puts out more than 85% of its energy at 254 nm. The actinometric solution is optically opaque to light below 290 nm and is optically transparent to wavelengths greater than 330 nm. Hence, the solution absorbs all of the germicidal wavelengths but little if any of the ambient light normally present in the laboratory. Iodate acts as an electron scavenger and prevents the back reaction of the free electron with the iodine atom following UV excitation of KI. Irradiation results in the linear formation of triiodide, which is quantitated by measuring its absorbance at 352 nm. The quantum yield for this system is approximately 0.75 0.03 at 20.7AoC or approximately three times greater than that obtained previously using nitrous oxide as an electron scavenger. A model is proposed to account for this difference. A precise expression to account for the concentration and temperature dependence of the quantum yield is given by pH = 0.75(1 + 0.23[C - 0.577])(1 + 0.02[T - 20.7]) where C is the concentration of iodide and T is the temperature. The concentration of iodide can be obtained from the absorbance at 300 nm prior to irradiation using 1.061 MJ cm−1 as the molar extinction coefficient. This actinometric system meets the quality criteria established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry with the caveat that it is designed to measure only germicidal radiation (i.e. wavelengths less than 290 nm). more

275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three new molybdenyl iodates have been prepared through the hydrothermal reactions of MoO3 with AIO4 at 180 C, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds show a high degree of transparency from 1 to 3 eV and a band gap of 3.1 eV. more

Abstract: Three new molybdenyl iodates, KMoO3(IO3) (1), RbMoO3(IO3) (2), and CsMoO3(IO3) (3), have been prepared through the hydrothermal reactions of MoO3 with AIO4 (A = K, Rb, or Cs) at 180 °C. These compounds are isolated as nearly colorless, air-stable crystals. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that 1 possesses a corrugated layered structure constructed from molybdenum oxide chains that are bridged by iodate anions. The puckering of the layers is caused by the alignment of bent molybdenyl (MoO22+) groups along one side of the molybdenum oxide chains. The K+ cations separate these layers from one another and serve to balance charge. In contrast, compounds 2 and 3, which are isostructural, form three-dimensional structures with small cavities filled with Rb+ or Cs+ cations. The differences between the structures of 1 and those of 2 and 3 are due to rotation of the molybdenyl units as translation occurs down the molybdenum oxide chains in order to accommodate the increased size of the Rb+ and Cs... more

262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An observationally constrained photochemical box model has been developed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of iodine in the marine boundary layer, motivated by recent measurements of the iodine monoxide (IO) radical (Allan et al., this issue). Good agreement with the time series of IO measured at a midlatitude coastal station was achieved by using a reaction scheme that included recycling of iodine through marine aerosol. The strong diurnal variation in IO observed in the subtropical Atlantic was satisfactorily modeled by assuming a constant concentration of iodocarbons that photolyzed to produce roughly 1×104 iodine atoms cm−3 s−1 at midday. The significance of the occurrence of IO at concentrations of up to 4 parts per trillion in the marine boundary layer was then considered from three angles. First, the iodine-catalyzed destruction of ozone was shown to be of a magnitude similar to that caused by odd-hydrogen photochemistry, with up to 13% of the available ozone destroyed per day in a marine air mass. Second, the enrichment factor of iodine in marine aerosol compared with surface seawater was predicted to increase to values of several thousand, in sensible accord with observations. Most of the enrichment should be due to the accumulation of iodate, although other iodine species may also be present, depending on the rate of aerosol recycling. Third, the denoxification of the marine boundary layer was found to be significantly enhanced as a result of aerosol uptake of IONO2, formed from the recombination of IO with NO2. more

255 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt

26 papers, 984 citations

Victor W. Truesdale

17 papers, 563 citations

Jiang-Gao Mao

13 papers, 468 citations

Chun-Li Hu

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George W. Luther

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