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Ion beam mixing

About: Ion beam mixing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3533 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 47427 citation(s).

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29 Mar 1996
Abstract: 1. General features and fundamental concepts 2. Interatomic potentials 3. Dynamics of binary elastic collisions 4. Cross-section 5. Ion stopping 6. Ion range and range distribution 7. Radiation damage and spikes 8. Ion-solid simulations and irradiation enhanced transport 9. Sputtering 10. Order-disorder under irradiation and ion implantation metallurgy 11. Ion beam mixing 12. Phase transformations 13. Ion beam assisted deposition 14. Applications of ion beam processing techniques 15. Ion beam system features Appendices: A. Crystallography B. Table of contents C. Density of states D. Derivation of the Thomas-Fermi differential equations E. Centre-of-mass and laboratory scattering angles F. Miedema's semi-empirical model for the enthalpy of formation in the liquid and solid state G. Implantation metallurgy - study of equilibrium alloys.

777 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ions of kiloelectron volt energies incident on a solid surface produce a number of effects: several atoms are sputtered off, several electrons are emitted, chemical reactions may be induced, atoms are displaced from their equilibrium positions, and ions implant themselves in the solid, altering its properties. Some of these effects, such as sputtering and implantation are widely used in semiconductor device fabrication and in other fields. Thus the capability to focus a beam of ions to submicrometer dimensions, i.e., dimensions compatible with the most demanding fabrication procedures, is an important development. The focused ion beam field has been spurred by the invention of the liquid metal ion source and by the utilization of focusing columns with mass separation capability. This has led to the use of alloy ion sources making available a large menu of ion species, in particular the dopants of Si and GaAs. The ability to sputter and to also induce deposition by causing breakdown of an adsorbed film has produced an immediate application of focused ion beams to photomask repair. The total number of focused ion beamfabrication systems in use worldwide is about 35, about 25 of them in Japan. In addition, there are many more simpler focused ion beam columns for specialized uses. The interest is growing rapidly. The following range of specifications of these systems has been reported: accelerating potential 3 to 200 kV, ion current density in focal spot up to 10 A/cm2, beam diameters from 0.05 to 1 μm, deflection accuracy of the beam over the surface ±0.1 μm, and ion species available Ga, Au, Si, Be, B, As, P, etc. Some of the applications which have been demonstrated or suggested include: mask repair, lithography (to replace electron beamlithography), direct, patterned, implantationdoping of semiconductors, ion induced deposition for circuit repair or rewiring, scanning ion microscopy, and scanning ion mass spectroscopy.

539 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The field of low-energy ion scattering for surface interactions at metals, alloys, catalysts and semiconductors is reviewed. The description of experimental set-up's for ion and neutral detection has been included. One of the topics is ion scattering for elemental analysis of the topmost layer to be performed in the classical noble-gas ion scattering spectroscopy approach (ISS) as well as with direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS). Emphasis has also been put on surface structure analysis including ion beam crystallography with low-energy ion backscattering (ICISS) for single-crystal surfaces. The basic principles, classical scattering theory, the effect of shadowing and blocking, and some of the computer simulation programs are briefly described. A discussion for understanding the physics of ion-surface interactions, charge exchange of various projectiles during collisions, molecule scattering and bond breaking is also included.

521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: C60 is shown to be a very favorable ion beam system for TOF-SIMS, delivering high yield, close to 10% total yield, favoring high-mass ions, and on thick samples, offering the possibility of analysis well beyond the static limit.
Abstract: A buckminsterfullerene (C60)-based primary ion beam system has been developed for routine application in TOF-SIMS analysis of organic materials. The ion beam system is described, and its performance is characterized. Nanoamp beam currents of C60+ are obtainable in continuous current mode. C602+ can be obtained in pulsed mode. At 10 keV, the beam can be focused to less than 3 μm with 0.1 nA currents. TOF-SIMS studies of a series of molecular solids and a number of polymer systems in monolayer and thick film forms are reported. Very significant enhancement of secondary ion yields, particularly at higher mass, were observed using 10-keV C60+ for all samples other than PTFE, as compared to those observed from 10 keV Ga+ primary ions. Three materials (PS2000, Irganox 1010, PET) were studied in detail to investigate primary ion-induced disappearance (damage) cross sections to determine the increase in secondary ion formation efficiency. The C60 disappearance cross sections observed from monolayer film PS2000 an...

489 citations

01 Nov 1989
Abstract: ANALYSIS CONDITIONS. Primary Beam. Primary Beam Energy. Angle of Incidence. Sputtering Rate. Detected Area. Species Monitored. End Point. Energy Distribution. PROFILE ISSUES. Ion Beam Mixing and Depth Resolution. Segregation and Charge Driven Diffusion. Matrix Effects. Surface Effects. Particulates. Crate Shape. Microtopography. Memory Effect. Count Rate Saturation. Sample Location and Mounting. Mass Interferences. QUANTIFICATION. Procedure. Calibration Using Ion Implantation. Systematic Trends in RSFs. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS. Bulk Analysis. Metals and Rough Surfaces. Insulators. Interfaces. Multilayers. Residual Gas Elements. Small Areas. Major Elements. Appendices. Index.

435 citations

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