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About: Ion is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 107590 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2004746 citation(s).

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Abstract: Electron-transfer reactions between ions and molecules in solution have been the subject of considerable experimental study during the past three decades. Experimental results have also been obtained on related phenomena, such as reactions between ions or molecules and electrodes, charge-transfer spectra, photoelectric emission spectra of ionic solutions, chemiluminescent electron transfers, electron transfer through frozen media, and electron transfer through thin hydrocarbon-like films on electrodes.

6,838 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sputtering of a target by energetic ions or recoil atoms is assumed to result from cascades of atomic collisions. The sputtering yield is calculated under the assumption of random slowing down in an infinite medium. An integrodifferential equation for the yield is developed from the general Boltzmann transport equation. Input quantities are the cross sections for ion-target and target-target collisions, and atomic binding energies. Solutions of the integral equation are given that are asymptotically exact in the limit of high ion energy as compared to atomic binding energies. Two main stages of the collision cascade have to be distinguished: first, the slowing down of the primary ion and all recoiling atoms that have comparable energies---these particles determine the spatial extent of the cascade; second, the creation and slowing down of low-energy recoils that constitute the major part of all atoms set in motion. The separation between the two stages is essentially complete in the limit of high ion energy, as far as the calculation of the sputtering yield is concerned. High-energy collisions are characterized by Thomas-Fermi-type cross sections, while a Born-Mayer-type cross section is applied in the low-energy region. Electronic stopping is included when necessary. The separation of the cascade into two distinct stages has the consequence that two characteristic depths are important for the qualitative understanding of the sputtering process. First, the scattering events that eventually lead to sputtering take place within a certain layer near the surface, the thickness of which depends on ion mass and energy and on ion-target geometry. In the elastic collision region, this thickness is a sizable fraction of the ion range. Second, the majority of sputtered particles originate from a very thin surface layer (\ensuremath{\sim}5 \AA{}), because small energies dominate. The general sputtering-yield formula is applied to specific situations that are of interest for comparison with experiment. These include backsputtering of thick targets by ion beams at perpendicular and oblique incidence and ion energies above \ensuremath{\sim}100 eV, transmission sputtering of thin foils, sputtering by recoil atoms from $\ensuremath{\alpha}$-active atoms distributed homogeneously or inhomogeneously in a thick target, sputtering of fissionable specimens by fission fragments, and sputtering of specimens that are irradiated in the core of a reactor or bombarded with a neutron beam. There is good agreement with experimental results on polycrystalline targets within the estimated accuracy of the data and the input parameters entering the theory. There is no need for adjustable parameters in the usual sense, but specific experimental setups are discussed that allow independent checks or accurate determination of some input quantities.

2,492 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The application of electrostatic lenses is demonstrated to give a substantial improvement of the two-dimensional (2D) ion/electron imaging technique. This combination of ion lens optics and 2D detection makes “velocity map imaging” possible, i.e., all particles with the same initial velocity vector are mapped onto the same point on the detector. Whereas the more common application of grid electrodes leads to transmission reduction, severe trajectory deflections and blurring due to the non-point source geometry, these problems are avoided with open lens electrodes. A three-plate assembly with aperture electrodes has been tested and its properties are compared with those of grid electrodes. The photodissociation processes occurring in molecular oxygen following the two-photon 3dπ(3Σ1g −)(v=2, N=2)←X(3Σg −) Rydberg excitation around 225 nm are presented here to show the improvement in spatial resolution in the ion and electron images. Simulated trajectory calculations show good agreement with experiment and ...

2,236 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: Here it is shown how the K+ channel displaces water molecules around an ion at its extracellular entryway, and how it holds a K+ ion in a square antiprism of water molecules in a cavity near its intracellular entry way.
Abstract: Ion transport proteins must remove an ion's hydration shell to coordinate the ion selectively on the basis of its size and charge. To discover how the K+ channel solves this fundamental aspect of ion conduction, we solved the structure of the KcsA K+ channel in complex with a monoclonal Fab antibody fragment at 2.0 A resolution. Here we show how the K+ channel displaces water molecules around an ion at its extracellular entryway, and how it holds a K+ ion in a square antiprism of water molecules in a cavity near its intracellular entryway. Carbonyl oxygen atoms within the selectivity filter form a very similar square antiprism around each K+ binding site, as if to mimic the waters of hydration. The selectivity filter changes its ion coordination structure in low K+ solutions. This structural change is crucial to the operation of the selectivity filter in the cellular context, where the K+ ion concentration near the selectivity filter varies in response to channel gating.

1,873 citations

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