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About: Ionization is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 67763 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1376985 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ionisation.

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TL;DR: During strong-field multiphoton ionization, a wave packet is formed each time the laser field passes its maximum value, and one important parameter which determines the strength of these effects is the rate at which the wave packet spreads in the direction perpendicular to the laser electric field.
Abstract: During strong-field multiphoton ionization, a wave packet is formed each time the laser field passes its maximum value Within the first laser period after ionization there is a significant probability that the electron will return to the vicinity of the ion with very high kinetic energy High-harmonic generation, multiphoton two-electron ejection, and very high energy above-threshold-ionization electrons are all conssequences of this electron-ion interaction One important parameter which determines the strength of these effects is the rate at which the wave packet spreads in the direction perpendicular to the laser electric field; another is the polarization of the laser It will be essential for experimentalists to be aware of these crucial parameters in future experiments

4,891 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of time-dependent density-functional response theory (TD-DFRT) for the calculation of high-lying bound electronic excitation energies of molecules. TD-DFRT excitation energies are reported for a large number of states for each of four molecules: N2, CO, CH2O, and C2H4. In contrast to the good results obtained for low-lying states within the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA), there is a marked deterioration of the results for high-lying bound states. This is manifested as a collapse of the states above the TDLDA ionization threshold, which is at ??HOMOLDA (the negative of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy in the LDA). The ??HOMOLDA is much lower than the true ionization potential because the LDA exchange-correlation potential has the wrong asymptotic behavior. For this reason, the excitation energies were also calculated using the asymptotically correct potential of van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB94) in the self-consistent field step. This was found to correct the collapse of the high-lying states that was observed with the LDA. Nevertheless, further improvement of the functional is desirable. For low-lying states the asymptotic behavior of the exchange-correlation potential is not critical and the LDA potential does remarkably well. We propose criteria delineating for which states the TDLDA can be expected to be used without serious impact from the incorrect asymptotic behavior of the LDA potential

4,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors show the double-slit interference effect in the strong-field ionization of neon dimers by employing COLTRIMS method to record the momentum distribution of the photoelectrons in the molecular frame.
Abstract: Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.

4,138 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We model, in an elementary way, the excited electronic states of semiconductor crystallites sufficiently small (∼50 A diam) that the electronic properties differ from those of bulk materials. In this limit the excited states and ionization processes assume a molecular‐like character. However, diffraction of bonding electrons by the periodic lattice potential remains of paramount importance in the crystallite electronic structure. Schrodinger’s equation is solved at the same level of approximation as used in the analysis of bulk crystalline electron‐hole states (Wannier excitons). Kinetic energy is treated by the effective mass approximation, and the potential energy is due to high frequency dielectric solvation by atomic core electrons. An approximate formula is given for the lowest excited electronic state energy. This expression is dependent upon bulk electronic properties, and contains no adjustable parameters. The optical f number for absorption and emission is also considered. The same model is applied to the problem of two conduction band electrons in a small crystallite, in order to understand how the redox potential of excess electrons depends upon crystallite size.

4,069 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental evidence is presented that the threshold pressure of ~120 GPa induces in molecular ammonia the process of autoionization to yet experimentally unknown ionic compound--ammonium amide, opening new possibilities for studying molecular interactions in hydrogen-bonded systems.
Abstract: Ionization of highly compressed ammonia has previously been predicted by computation. Here, the authors provide experimental evidence for this autoionization process at high pressures, showing the transformation of molecular ammonia into ammonium amide.

3,629 citations

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