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Iron oxide

About: Iron oxide is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18360 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 366846 citation(s). The topic is also known as: iron oxides.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na2S2O4) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At the same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to 12 owing to solubility product relationships of iron oxides. An optimum pH for maximum reaction kinetics occurs at approximately pH 7.3. A buffer is needed to hold the pH at the optimum level because 4 moles of OH are used up in reaction with each mole of Na2S2O4 oxidized. Tests show that NaHCO3 effectively serves as a buffer in this application. Crystalline hematite dissolved in amounts of several hundred milligrams in 2 min. Crystalline goethite dissolved more slowly, but dissolved during the two or three 15 min treatments normally given for iron oxide removal from soils and clays. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soils and clays was tested with soils high in free iron oxides and with nontronite and other iron-bearing clays. It was found that the bicarbonate-buffered Na2S2O4-citrate system was the most effective in removal of free iron oxides from latosolic soils, and the least destructive of iron silicate clays as indicated by least loss in cation exchange capacity after the iron oxide removal treatment. With soils the decrease was very little but with the very susceptible Woody district nontronite, the decrease was about 17 percent as contrasted to 35–80 percent with other methods.

3,637 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Samples of the iron oxides Fe0.94O, Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe2SiO4 were prepared by high temperature equilibration in controlled gas atmospheres. The samples were fractured in vacuum and high resolution XPS spectra of the fractured surfaces were measured. The peak positions and peak shape parameters of Fe 3p for Fe2+ and Fe3+ were derived from the Fe 3p XPS spectra of the standard samples of 2FeO·SiO2 and Fe2O3, respectively. Using these parameters, the Fe 3p peaks of Fe3O4 and Fe1−yO are analysed. The results indicate that high resolution XPS techniques can be used to determine the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratios in metal oxides. The technique has the potential for application to other transition metal oxide systems.

3,366 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Aug 1966-Nature
Abstract: RECENTLY, Birch1 reported data on the density and composition of the mantle and core. He wrote: “The resulting densities in the lower mantle are found to be in good agreement with shock-wave measurements on rocks having FeO contents in the range 10 ± 2% by weight … except for iron oxide, the chemical composition of the mantle is indeterminate. The density of the outer core is lower than that of iron by about 10%”.

2,459 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1960
Abstract: The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na 2 S 2 O 4 ) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At the same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to 12 owing to solubility product relationships of iron oxides. An optimum pH for maximum reaction kinetics occurs at approximately pH 7.3. A buffer is needed to hold the pH at the optimum level because 4 moles of OH are used up in reaction with each mole of Na 2 S 2 O 4 oxidized. Tests show that NaHCO 3 effectively serves as a buffer in this application. Crystalline hematite dissolved in amounts of several hundred milligrams in 2 min. Crystalline geothite dissolved more slowly, but dissolved during the two or three 15 min treatments normally given for iron oxide removal from soils and clays. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soils and clays was tested with soils high in free iron oxides and with nontronite and other iron-bearing clays. It was found that the bicarbonate-buffered Na 2 S 2 O 4 -citrate system was the most effective in removal of free iron oxides from latosolic soils, and the least destructive of iron silicate clays as indicated by least loss in cation exchange capacity after the iron oxide removal treatment. With soils the decrease was very little but with the very susceptible Woody district nontronite, the decrease was aboout 17 percent as contrasted to 35-80 percent with other methods.

2,043 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sorption data indicate that, under most of the chemical conditions investigated in this study, reduction of As(V) in the presence of HFO or goethite would have only minor effects on or even decrease its mobility in the environment at near-neutral pH conditions.
Abstract: Arsenic derived from natural sources occurs in groundwater in many countries, affecting the health of millions of people. The combined effects of As(V) reduction and diagenesis of iron oxide minerals on arsenic mobility are investigated in this study by comparing As(V) and As(III) sorption onto amorphous iron oxide (HFO), goethite, and magnetite at varying solution compositions. Experimental data are modeled with a diffuse double layer surface complexation model, and the extracted model parameters are used to examine the consistency of our results with those previously reported. Sorption of As(V) onto HFO and goethite is more favorable than that of As(III) below pH 5−6, whereas, above pH 7−8, As(III) has a higher affinity for the solids. The pH at which As(V) and As(III) are equally sorbed depends on the solid-to-solution ratio and type and specific surface area of the minerals and is shifted to lower pH values in the presence of phosphate, which competes for sorption sites. The sorption data indicate tha...

1,923 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202224
2021541
2020697
2019808
2018783
2017804