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Isonicotinamide

About: Isonicotinamide is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 500 publications have been published within this topic receiving 10674 citations. The topic is also known as: isn & isonicotinamide.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These chelated Ru(II) arene complexes have potential as novel metal-based anticancer agents with a mechanism of action different from that of the Ru(III) complex currently on clinical trial.
Abstract: Inhibition of the growth of the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 by organometallic ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [(eta(6)-arene)Ru(X)(Y)(Z)], where arene is benzene or substituted benzene, X, Y, and Z are halide, acetonitrile, or isonicotinamide, or X,Y is ethylenediamine (en) or N-ethylethylenediamine, has been investigated. The X-ray crystal structures of the complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(en)Cl]PF(6) (5), [(eta(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(2)(isonicotinamide)] (7), and [(eta(6)-biphenyl)Ru(en)Cl]PF(6) (9) are reported. They have "piano stool" geometries with eta(6) coordination of the arene ligand. Complexes with X,Y as a chelated en ligand and Z as a monofunctional leaving group had the highest activity. Complexes 5, 6 (the iodo analogue of 5), 9, and 10 (ethylethylenediamine analogue of 9) were as active as carboplatin. Hydrolysis of the reactive Ru-Cl bond in complex 5 was detected by HPLC but was suppressed by the addition of chloride ions. Complex 5 binds strongly and selectively to G bases on DNA oligonucleotides to form monofunctional adducts. No inhibition of topoisomerase I or II by complexes 5, 6, or 9 was detected. These chelated Ru(II) arene complexes have potential as novel metal-based anticancer agents with a mechanism of action different from that of the Ru(III) complex currently on clinical trial.

712 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work has shown that the three-component supermolecule in the ternary cocrystal of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, isonicotinamide, and 4-(dimethylamino)benzosic acid assembles through a "primary" and "secondary" hydrogen-bonding interaction between the stronger acid and pyridine.
Abstract: Getting the right balance between intermolecular interactions is crucial for the synthesis of supermolecules in a preconceived manner. The three-component supermolecule in the ternary cocrystal of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, isonicotinamide, and 4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid (1:1:1) assembles through a "primary" (between the stronger acid and pyridine) and a "secondary" hydrogen-bonding interaction (between the weaker acid and amide).

409 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spectroscopic measurements (visible, EPR, and IR) provide a clue to the crystal-to-crystal transformation; on removal of the guests, the amide groups are used to form the beta sheet-type hydrogen bonding between the sheets, and thus the framework withstands significant stress on Removal of guest molecules.
Abstract: Four porous crystalline coordination polymers with two-dimensional frameworks of a double-edged axe-shaped motif, [[Co(NCS)(2)(3-pia)(2)] x 2 EtOH.11 H(2)O](n) (1 a), [[Co(NCS)(2)(3-pia)(2)] x 4 Me(2)CO](n) (3 a), [[Co(NCS)(2)(3-pia)(2)] x 4T HF](n) (3 b) and [[Co(NCS)(2)(3-pna)(2)](n)] (5), have been synthesized by the reaction of cobalt(II) thiocyanate with N-(3-pyridyl)isonicotinamide (3-pia) or N-(3-pyridyl)nicotinamide (3-pna). X-ray crystallographic characterization reveals that adjacent layers are stacked such that channels are created, except in 5. The channels form a hydrogen-bonded interior for guest molecules; in practice, 1 a contains ethanol and water molecules as guests in the channels with hydrogen bonds, whereas 3 b (3 a) contains tetrahydrofuran (acetone) molecules. In 1 a, the "double-edged axe-shaped" motifs in adjacent sheets are not located over the top of each other, while the motifs in 3 b stack so perfectly as to overlap each other in an edge-to-edge fashion. This subtle change in the three-dimensional framework is associated with the template effect of the guests. Compound 5 has no guest molecules and, therefore, the amide groups in one sheet are used for hydrogen-bonding links with adjacent sheets. Removal of the guest molecules from 1 a and 3 b (3 a) causes a structural conversion accompanied by a color change. Pink 1 a cannot retain its original framework and changes into a blue amorphous compound. On the other hand, the framework of pink 3 b (3 a) is transformed to a new crystalline framework of violet 4. Interestingly, 4 reverts to the original pink crystals of 3 b (3 a) when it is exposed to THF (or acetone) vapor. Spectroscopic measurements (visible, EPR, and IR) provide a clue to the crystal-to-crystal transformation; on removal of the guests, the amide groups are used to form the beta sheet-type hydrogen bonding between the sheets, and thus the framework withstands significant stress on removal of guest molecules. This mechanism is attributed to the arrangement of the adjacent sheets so suited in regularity that the beta sheet-type structure forms efficiently. The apohost 4 does not adsorb cyclopentane, showing a guest selectivity that, in addition to size, hydrogen-bonding capability is required for the guest molecules. The obtained compound is categorized as a member of a new generation of compounds tending towards functional porous coordination polymers.

370 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a modular expansion of carboxylic acid dimer in neutral cocrystals with pyridine type bases is shown, which results in a ternary cocrystal 12 sustained via O−H⋯N and O−O− hydrogen bonds, and the length of bipyridinium cation plays a role in the overall structure.
Abstract: Linear, zigzag tapes and flat, corrugated sheet structures are described in binary cocrystals 1–9 of some di- and tricarboxylic acids with 4,4′-bipyridine bases and isonicotinamide. Carboxylic acid⋯pyridine O–H⋯N, its proton transfer form N+–H⋯O−, carboxamide dimer N–H⋯O, and extended motifs are present in these crystal structures. Our results show modular expansion of carboxylic acid dimer in neutral cocrystals with pyridine type bases. Even as the structures of these aggregates can be understood from the molecular constituents in a straightforward manner, the nature of acid⋯pyridine synthon, i.e. neutral or ionic, is difficult to anticipate from their ΔpKa values. We modify the ΔpKa (pKa conjugate acid of pyridine base – pKa carboxylic acid) rule in COOH–pyridine cocrystals: ΔpKa 3.75 results in proton migration to the ionic interaction N+–H⋯O−. Proton transfer results in the assembly of a supramolecular 3-connected node of cyclohexane tricarboxylate and these anions form chair cyclohexane or parquet grid sheets in 10 and 11. The length of bipyridinium cation plays a role in the overall structure. A novel approach to three-component adducts is crystallization of 1,3cis,5cis-cyclohexane tricarboxylic acid with 4,4′-bipyridine and 4,4′-bipyridine-N-oxide bases of different strengths, which results in a ternary cocrystal 12 sustained via O–H⋯N and O–H⋯O− hydrogen bonds.

355 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 1:2 and 1: 1:1 cocrystallization of α,ω-alkanedicarboxylic acids (HOOC−(CH2)n-2−COOH, n = 2−6) with isonicotinamide (IN) is carried out in 1: 2 and 1 : 1 stoichiometry.
Abstract: Crystallization of α,ω-alkanedicarboxylic acids (HOOC−(CH2)n-2−COOH, n = 2−6) with isonicotinamide (IN) is carried out in 1:2 and 1:1 stoichiometry. Five cocrystals of (diacid)·(IN)2 composition (diacid = oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and adipic acid) are characterized by X-ray diffraction at 153(2) K. Tapes of acid−pyridine O−H···N and amide−amide N−H···O hydrogen bond synthons stabilize these five crystal structures as predicted by the hierarchic model: the best donor (COOH) and best acceptor group (pyridine N) hydrogen bond as acid−pyridine and the second best donor−acceptor group (CONH2) aggregates as an amide dimer. Glutaric acid and adipic acid cocrystallize in 1:1 stoichiometry also, (diacid)·(IN), with acid−pyridine and acid−amide hydrogen bonds. Synthon energy calculations (ΔEsynthon, RHF/6-31G**) explain the observed hydrogen bond preferences in 1:2 (five examples) and 1:1 (two examples) cocrystals. The acid−pyridine hydrogen bond is favored over the acid−amide dimer ...

256 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20239
202223
202115
202013
201929
201825