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Jamming

About: Jamming is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 9146 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 106690 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Lun Dong1, Zhu Han2, Athina P. Petropulu3, H.V. Poor4Institutions (4)
TL;DR: Novel system designs are proposed, consisting of the determination of relay weights and the allocation of transmit power, that maximize the achievable secrecy rate subject to a transmit power constraint, or minimize the transmit powersubject to a secrecy rate constraint.
Abstract: Physical (PHY) layer security approaches for wireless communications can prevent eavesdropping without upper layer data encryption. However, they are hampered by wireless channel conditions: absent feedback, they are typically feasible only when the source-destination channel is better than the source-eavesdropper channel. Node cooperation is a means to overcome this challenge and improve the performance of secure wireless communications. This paper addresses secure communications of one source-destination pair with the help of multiple cooperating relays in the presence of one or more eavesdroppers. Three cooperative schemes are considered: decode-and-forward (DF), amplify-and-forward (AF), and cooperative jamming (CJ). For these schemes, the relays transmit a weighted version of a reencoded noise-free message signal (for DF), a received noisy source signal (for AF), or a common jamming signal (for CJ). Novel system designs are proposed, consisting of the determination of relay weights and the allocation of transmit power, that maximize the achievable secrecy rate subject to a transmit power constraint, or, minimize the transmit power subject to a secrecy rate constraint. For DF in the presence of one eavesdropper, closed-form optimal solutions are derived for the relay weights. For other problems, since the optimal relay weights are difficult to obtain, several criteria are considered leading to suboptimal but simple solutions, i.e., the complete nulling of the message signals at all eavesdroppers (for DF and AF), or the complete nulling of jamming signal at the destination (for CJ). Based on the designed relay weights, for DF in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers, and for CJ in the presence of one eavesdropper, the optimal power allocation is obtained in closed-form; in all other cases the optimal power allocation is obtained via iterative algorithms. Numerical evaluation of the obtained secrecy rate and transmit power results show that the proposed design can significantly improve the performance of secure wireless communications.

1,294 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 May 2005
TL;DR: This paper proposes four different jamming attack models that can be used by an adversary to disable the operation of a wireless network, and evaluates their effectiveness in terms of how each method affects the ability of a Wireless node to send and receive packets.
Abstract: Wireless networks are built upon a shared medium that makes it easy for adversaries to launch jamming-style attacks. These attacks can be easily accomplished by an adversary emitting radio frequency signals that do not follow an underlying MAC protocol. Jamming attacks can severely interfere with the normal operation of wireless networks and, consequently, mechanisms are needed that can cope with jamming attacks. In this paper, we examine radio interference attacks from both sides of the issue: first, we study the problem of conducting radio interference attacks on wireless networks, and second we examine the critical issue of diagnosing the presence of jamming attacks. Specifically, we propose four different jamming attack models that can be used by an adversary to disable the operation of a wireless network, and evaluate their effectiveness in terms of how each method affects the ability of a wireless node to send and receive packets. We then discuss different measurements that serve as the basis for detecting a jamming attack, and explore scenarios where each measurement by itself is not enough to reliably classify the presence of a jamming attack. In particular, we observe that signal strength and carrier sensing time are unable to conclusively detect the presence of a jammer. Further, we observe that although by using packet delivery ratio we may differentiate between congested and jammed scenarios, we are nonetheless unable to conclude whether poor link utility is due to jamming or the mobility of nodes. The fact that no single measurement is sufficient for reliably classifying the presence of a jammer is an important observation, and necessitates the development of enhanced detection schemes that can remove ambiguity when detecting a jammer. To address this need, we propose two enhanced detection protocols that employ consistency checking. The first scheme employs signal strength measurements as a reactive consistency check for poor packet delivery ratios, while the second scheme employs location information to serve as the consistency check. Throughout our discussions, we examine the feasibility and effectiveness of jamming attacks and detection schemes using the MICA2 Mote platform.

1,252 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that volume changes of less than 0.5% suffice to grip objects reliably and hold them with forces exceeding many times their weight, and opens up new possibilities for the design of simple, yet highly adaptive systems that excel at fast gripping of complex objects.
Abstract: Gripping and holding of objects are key tasks for robotic manipulators. The development of universal grippers able to pick up unfamiliar objects of widely varying shape and surface properties remains, however, challenging. Most current designs are based on the multifingered hand, but this approach introduces hardware and software complexities. These include large numbers of controllable joints, the need for force sensing if objects are to be handled securely without crushing them, and the computational overhead to decide how much stress each finger should apply and where. Here we demonstrate a completely different approach to a universal gripper. Individual fingers are replaced by a single mass of granular material that, when pressed onto a target object, flows around it and conforms to its shape. Upon application of a vacuum the granular material contracts and hardens quickly to pinch and hold the object without requiring sensory feedback. We find that volume changes of less than 0.5% suffice to grip objects reliably and hold them with forces exceeding many times their weight. We show that the operating principle is the ability of granular materials to transition between an unjammed, deformable state and a jammed state with solid-like rigidity. We delineate three separate mechanisms, friction, suction, and interlocking, that contribute to the gripping force. Using a simple model we relate each of them to the mechanical strength of the jammed state. This advance opens up new possibilities for the design of simple, yet highly adaptive systems that excel at fast gripping of complex objects.

938 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Takashi Nagatani1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Traffic flow is a kind of many-body system of strongly interacting vehicles. Traffic jams are a typical signature of the complex behaviour of vehicular traffic. Various models are presented to understand the rich variety of physical phenomena exhibited by traffic. Analytical and numerical techniques are applied to study these models. Particularly, we present detailed results obtained mainly from the microscopic car-following models. A typical phenomenon is the dynamical jamming transition from the free traffic (FT) at low density to the congested traffic at high density. The jamming transition exhibits the phase diagram similar to a conventional gas-liquid phase transition: the FT and congested traffic correspond to the gas and liquid phases, respectively. The dynamical transition is described by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the phase transition. The jamming transition curve is given by the spinodal line. The metastability exists in the region between the spinodal and phase separation lines. The jams in the congested traffic reveal various density waves. Some of these density waves show typical nonlinear waves such as soliton, triangular shock and kink. The density waves are described by the nonlinear wave equations: the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the Modified KdV equation. Subjects like the traffic flow such as bus-route system and pedestrian flow are touched as well. The bus-route system with many buses exhibits the bunching transition where buses bunch together with proceeding ahead. Such dynamic models as the car-following model are proposed to investigate the bunching transition and bus delay. A recurrent bus exhibits the dynamical transition between the delay and schedule-time phases. The delay transition is described in terms of the nonlinear map. The pedestrian flow also reveals the jamming transition from the free flow at low density to the clogging at high density. Some models are presented to study the pedestrian flow. When the clogging occurs, the pedestrian flow shows the scaling behaviour.

822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
V. Trappe1, V. Trappe2, V. Prasad2, Luca Cipelletti3  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
14 Jun 2001-Nature
TL;DR: The results support the concept of a jamming phase diagram for attractive colloidal particles, providing a unifying link between the glass transition, gelation and aggregation.
Abstract: A wide variety of systems, including granular media, colloidal suspensions and molecular systems, exhibit non-equilibrium transitions from a fluid-like to a solid-like state, characterized solely by the sudden arrest of their dynamics. Crowding or jamming of the constituent particles traps them kinetically, precluding further exploration of the phase space1. The disordered fluid-like structure remains essentially unchanged at the transition. The jammed solid can be refluidized by thermalization, through temperature or vibration, or by an applied stress. The generality of the jamming transition led to the proposal2 of a unifying description, based on a jamming phase diagram. It was further postulated that attractive interactions might have the same effect in jamming the system as a confining pressure, and thus could be incorporated into the generalized description. Here we study experimentally the fluid-to-solid transition of weakly attractive colloidal particles, which undergo markedly similar gelation behaviour with increasing concentration and decreasing thermalization or stress. Our results support the concept of a jamming phase diagram for attractive colloidal particles, providing a unifying link between the glass transition3, gelation4,5 and aggregation6,7,8.

750 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021501
2020641
2019727
2018654
2017571