Topic

# Jerk

About: Jerk is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2747 publications have been published within this topic receiving 40500 citations.

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TL;DR: A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements, and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space.

Abstract: This paper presents studies of the coordination of voluntary human arm movements. A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements. Coordination is modeled mathematically by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement. The unique trajectory which yields the best performance is determined using dynamic optimization theory. In the work presented here, the objective function is the square of the magnitude of jerk (rate of change of acceleration) of the hand integrated over the entire movement. This is equivalent to assuming that a major goal of motor coordination is the production of the smoothest possible movement of the hand. Experimental observations of human subjects performing voluntary unconstrained movements in a horizontal plane are presented. They confirm the following predictions of the mathematical model: unconstrained point-to-point motions are approximately straight with bell-shaped tangential velocity profiles; curved motions (through an intermediate point or around an obstacle) have portions of low curvature joined by portions of high curvature; at points of high curvature, the tangential velocity is reduced; the durations of the low-curvature portions are approximately equal. The theoretical analysis is based solely on the kinematics of movement independent of the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system and is successful only when formulated in terms of the motion of the hand in extracorporal space. The implications with respect to movement organization are discussed.

4,226 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a quintic spline trajectory generation algorithm was proposed to generate continuous position, velocity, and acceleration profiles. But the spline interpolation is realized with a novel approach that eliminates feedrate fluctuations due to parametrization errors, resulting in trapezoidal acceleration profiles along the toolpath.

Abstract: Reference trajectory generation plays a key role in the computer control of machine tools. Generated trajectories must not only describe the desired tool path accurately, but must also have smooth kinematic profiles in order to maintain high tracking accuracy, and avoid exciting the natural modes of the mechanical structure or servo control system. Spline trajectory generation techniques have become widely adopted in machining aerospace parts, dies, and molds for this reason; they provide a more continuous feed motion compared to multiple linear or circular segments and result in shorter machining time, as well as better surface geometry. This paper presents a quintic spline trajectory generation algorithm that produces continuous position, velocity, and acceleration profiles. The spline interpolation is realized with a novel approach that eliminates feedrate fluctuations due to parametrization errors. Smooth accelerations and decelerations are obtained by imposing limits on the first and second time derivatives of feedrate, resulting in trapezoidal acceleration profiles along the toolpath. Finally, the reference trajectory generated with varying interpolation period is re-sampled at the servo loop closure period using fifth order polynomials, which enable the original kinematic profiles to be preserved. The proposed trajectory generation algorithm has been tested in machining a wing surface on a three axis milling machine, controlled with an in house developed open architecture CNC.

488 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors use the Friedmann equations to infer the scale factor of the cosmological equation of state at the current epoch from the observed scale factor at the previous epoch.

Abstract: Taylor expanding the cosmological equation of state around the current epoch is the simplest model one can consider that does not make any a priori restrictions on the nature of the cosmological fluid. Most popular cosmological models attempt to be 'predictive', in the sense that once some a priori equation of state is chosen the Friedmann equations are used to determine the evolution of the FRW scale factor a(t). In contrast, a 'retrodictive' approach might usefully take observational data concerning the scale factor, and use the Friedmann equations to infer an observed cosmological equation of state. In particular, the value and derivatives of the scale factor determined at the current epoch place constraints on the value and derivatives of the cosmological equation of state at the current epoch. Determining the first three Taylor coefficients of the equation of state at the current epoch requires a measurement of the deceleration, jerk and snap—the second, third and fourth derivatives of the scale factor with respect to time. Higher-order Taylor coefficients in the equation of state are related to higher-order time derivatives of the scale factor. Since the jerk and snap are rather difficult to measure, being related to the third and fourth terms in the Taylor series expansion of the Hubble law, it becomes clear why direct observational constraints on the cosmological equation of state are so relatively weak, and are likely to remain weak for the foreseeable future.

423 citations

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TL;DR: The effects of artificial visual feedback on planar two-joint arm movements are studied to suggest that spatial perception-as mediated by vision-plays a fundamental role in trajectory planning and suggests that trajectories are planned in visually based kinematic coordinates.

Abstract: There are several invariant features of pointto-point human arm movements: trajectories tend to be straight, smooth, and have bell-shaped velocity profiles. One approach to accounting for these data is via optimization theory; a movement is specified implicitly as the optimum of a cost function, e.g., integrated jerk or torque change. Optimization models of trajectory planning, as well as models not phrased in the optimization framework, generally fall into two main groups-those specified in kinematic coordinates and those specified in dynamic coordinates. To distinguish between these two possibilities we have studied the effects of artificial visual feedback on planar two-joint arm movements. During self-paced point-to-point arm movements the visual feedback of hand position was altered so as to increase the perceived curvature of the movement. The perturbation was zero at both ends of the movement and reached a maximum at the midpoint of the movement. Cost functions specified by hand coordinate kinematics predict adaptation to increased curvature so as to reduce the visual curvature, while dynamically specified cost functions predict no adaptation in the underlying trajectory planner, provided the final goal of the movement can still be achieved. We also studied the effects of reducing the perceived curvature in transverse movements, which are normally slightly curved. Adaptation should be seen in this condition only if the desired trajectory is both specified in kinematic coordinates and actually curved. Increasing the perceived curvature of normally straight sagittal movements led to significant (P 0.05). The results of the curvature-increasing study suggest that trajectories are planned in visually based kinematic coordinates. The results of the curvature-reducing study suggest that the desired trajectory is straight in visual space. These results are incompatible with purely dynamicbased models such as the minimum torque change model. We suggest that spatial perception-as mediated by vision-plays a fundamental role in trajectory planning.

383 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a solution to the problem of minimizing the cost of moving a robotic manipulator along a specified geometric path subject to input torque/force constraints, taking the coupled, nonlinear dynamics of the manipulator into account.

Abstract: This paper presents a solution to the problem of minimizing the cost of moving a robotic manipulator along a specified geometric path subject to input torque/force constraints, taking the coupled, nonlinear dynamics of the manipulator into account. The proposed method uses dynamic programming (DP) to find the positions, velocities, accelerations, and torques that minimize cost. Since the use of parametric functions reduces the dimension of the state space from 2n for an n - jointed manipulator, to two, the DP method does not suffer from the "curse of dimensionality." While maintaining the elegance of our previous trajectory planning method, we have developed the DP method for the general case where 1) the actuator torque limits are dependent on one another, 2) the cost functions can have an arbitrary form, and 3) there are constraints on the jerk, or derivative of the acceleration. Also, we have shown that the DP solution converges as the grid size decreases. As numerical examples, the trajectory planning method is simulated for the first three joints of the PACS arm, which is a cylindrical arm manufactured by the Bendix Corporation.

367 citations