About: Jet noise is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2958 publications have been published within this topic receiving 55018 citations.
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TL;DR: The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise. The theory is developed with special reference to the noise of jets, for which a detailed comparison with experiment is made (§7 for subsonic jets, §8 for supersonic ones). The quadrupole distribution of part I (Lighthill 1952) is shown to behave (see §3) as if it were concentrated into independent point quadrupoles, one in each ‘average eddy volume’. The sound field of each of these is distorted, in favour of downstream emission, by the general downstream motion of the eddy, in accordance with the quadrupole convection theory of part I. This explains, for jet noise, the marked preference for downstream emission, and its increase with jet velocity. For jet velocities considerably greater than the atmospheric speed of sound, the ‘Mach number of convection’ M c may exceed I in parts of the jet, and then the directional maximum for emission from these parts of the jet is at an angle of sec -1 ( M c ) to the axis (§8). Although turbulence without any mean flow has an acoustic power output, which was calculated to a rough approximation from the expressions of part I by Proudman (1952) (see also § 4 below), nevertheless, turbulence of given intensity can generate more sound in the presence of a large mean shear (§ 5). This sound has a directional maximum at 45° (or slightly less, due to the quadrupole convection effect) to the shear layer. These results follow from the fact that the most important term in the rate of change of momentum flux is the product of the pressure and the rate of strain (see figure 2). The higher frequency sound from the heavily sheared mixing region close to the orifice of a jet is found to be of this character. But the lower frequency sound from the fully turbulent core of the jet, farther downstream, can be estimated satisfactorily (§7) from Proudman’s results, which are here reinterpreted (§5) in terms of sound generated from combined fluctuations of pressure and rate of shear in the turbulence. The acoustic efficiency of the jet is of the order of magnitude 10 -4 M 5 , where M is the orifice Mach number. However, the good agreement, as regards total acoustic power output, with the dimensional considerations of part I, is partly fortuitous. The quadrupole convection effect should produce an increase in the dependence of acoustic power on the jet velocity above the predicted U 8 law. The experiments show that (largely cancelling this) some other dependence on velocity is present, tending to reduce the intensity, at the stations where the convection effect would be absent, below the U 8 law. At these stations (at 90° to the jet) proportionality to about U 6.5 is more common. A suggested explanation of this, compatible with the existing evidence, is that at higher Mach numbers there may be less turbulence (especially for larger values of nd / U , where n is frequency and d diameter), because in the mixing region, where the turbulence builds up, it is losing energy by sound radiation. This would explain also the slow rate of spread of supersonic mixing regions, and, indeed, is not incompatible with existing rough explanations of that phenomenon. A consideration (§6) of whether the terms other than momentum flux in the quadrupole strength density might become important in heated jets indicates that they should hardly ever be dominant. Accordingly, the physical explanation (part I) of aerodynamic sound generation still stands. It is re-emphasized, however, that whenever there is a fluctuating force between the fluid and a solid boundary, a dipole radiation will result which may be more efficient than the quadrupole radiation, at least at low Mach numbers.
TL;DR: In this article, a general scheme for educing coherent structures in any transitional or fully turbulent flow is presented, based on smoothed vorticity maps in convenient flow planes, which recognizes patterns of the same mode and parameter size, and then phase-aligns and ensembles them to obtain coherent structure measures.
Abstract: This is a personal statement on the present state of understanding of coherent structures, in particular their spatial details and dynamical significance. The characteristic measures of coherent structures are discussed, emphasizing coherent vorticity as the crucial property. We present here a general scheme for educing structures in any transitional or fully turbulent flow. From smoothed vorticity maps in convenient flow planes, this scheme recognizes patterns of the same mode and parameter size, and then phase-aligns and ensemble-averages them to obtain coherent structure measures. The departure of individual realizations from the ensemble average denotes incoherent turbulence. This robust scheme has been used to educe structures from velocity data using a rake of hot wires as well as direct numerical simulations and can educe structures using newer measurement techniques such as digital image processing. Our recent studies of coherent structures in several free shear flows are briefly reviewed. Detailed data in circular and elliptic jets, mixing layers, and a plane wake reveal that incoherent turbulence is produced at the ‘saddles’ and then advected to the ‘centres’ of the structures. The mechanism of production of turbulence in shear layers is the stretching of longitudinal vortices or ‘ribs’ which connect the predominantly spanwise ‘rolls’; the ribs induce spanwise contortions of rolls and cause mixing and dissipation, mostly at points where they connect with rolls. We also briefly discuss the role of coherent structures in aerodynamic noise generation and argue that the structure breakdown process, rather than vortex pairing, is the dominant mechanism of noise generation. The ‘cut-and-connect’ interaction of coherent structures is proposed as a specific mechanism of aerodynamic noise generation, and a simple analytical model of it shows that it can provide acceptable predictions of jet noise. The coherent-structures approach to turbulence, apart from explaining flow physics, has also enabled turbulence management via control of structure evolution and interactions. We also discuss some new ideas under investigation: in particular, helicity as a characteristic property of coherent structures.
TL;DR: In this article, a reformulation of the Lighthill (1952) theory of aerodynamic sound is described, and the form of the acoustic propagation operator is established for a non-uniform mean flow in the absence of vortical or entropy gradient source terms.
Abstract: This paper describes a reformulation of the Lighthill (1952) theory of aerodynamic sound. A revised approach to the subject is necessary in order to unify the various ad hoc procedures which have been developed for dealing with aerodynamic noise problems since the original appearance of Lighthill's work. First, Powell's (1961 a) concept of vortex sound is difficult to justify convincingly on the basis of Lighthill's acoustic analogy, although it is consistent with model problems which have been treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Second, Candel (1972), Marble (1973) and Morfey (1973) have demonstrated the importance of entropy inhomogeneities, which generate sound when accelerated in a mean flow pressure gradient. This is arguably a more significant source of acoustic radiation in hot subsonic jets than pure jet noise. Third, the analysis of Ffowcs Williams & Howe (1975) of model problems involving the convection of an entropy ‘slug’ in an engine nozzle indicates that the whole question of excess jet noise may be intimately related to the convection of flow inhomogeneities through mean flow pressure gradients. Such problems are difficult to formulate precisely in terms of Lighthill's theory because of the presence of an extensive, non-acoustic, non-uniform mean flow. The convected-entropy source mechanism is actually absent from the alternative Phillips (1960) formulation of the aerodynamic sound problem.In this paper the form of the acoustic propagation operator is established for a non-uniform mean flow in the absence of vortical or entropy-gradient source terms. The natural thermodynamic variable for dealing with such problems is the stagnation enthalpy. This provides a basis for a new acoustic analogy, and it is deduced that the corresponding acoustic source terms are associated solely with regions of the flow where the vorticity vector and entropy-gradient vector are non-vanishing. The theory is illustrated by detailed applications to problems which, in the appropriate limit, justify Powell's theory of vortex sound, and to the important question of noise generation during the unsteady convection of flow inhomogeneities in ducts and past rigid bodies in free space. At low Mach numbers wave propagation is described by a convected wave equation, for which powerful analytical techniques, discussed in the appendix, are available and are exploited.Fluctuating heat sources are examined: a model problem is considered and provides a positive comparison with an alternative analysis undertaken elsewhere. The difficult question of the scattering of a plane sound wave by a cylindrical vortex filament is also discussed, the effect of dissipation at the vortex core being taken into account.Finally an approximate aerodynamic theory of the operation of musical instruments characterized by the flute is described. This involves an investigation of the properties of a vortex shedding mechanism which is coupled in a nonlinear manner to the acoustic oscillations within the instrument. The theory furnishes results which are consistent with the playing technique of the flautist and with simple acoustic measurements undertaken by the author.
••01 Dec 1953
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the noise in two-dimensional flow with the aid of a dynamic Schlieren apparatus, verifying the suggested mechanism and showing the similarity to axially symmetric flow where discontinuities in frequency, partly analogous to edge tones, occur.
Abstract: The character of jet noise undergoes a marked change above choking, the noise due to turbulent mixing being dominated by a powerful whistle or screech whose wavelength is related to the regular shock wave spacing. The mechanism in two-dimensional flow is further examined (by the aid of a dynamic Schlieren apparatus), verifying the suggested mechanism and showing the similarity to that in axially symmetric flow where discontinuities in frequency, partly analogous to edge tones, occur. The resultant sound emitted as the periodic eddy system traverses the regular shock wave pattern is highly directional, producing a powerful beam at doubled frequency normal to the jet and an intense beam at eddy frequency in the upstream direction adjacent to the jet, resulting in fluctuations in jet velocity direction at the orifice which initiate new stream disturbances. A gain criterion for the self-maintained cycle is given, enabling certain qualitative deductions concerning the intensity to be made, and use will be made of this in considering methods of reducing the noise level.
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