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Joint (geology)

About: Joint (geology) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16475 publications have been published within this topic receiving 153005 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1977
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe an empirical law of friction for rock joints, which can be used both for extrapolating and predicting shear strength data, and demonstrate that it can be estimated to within ± 1° for any one of the eight rock types investigated.
Abstract: The paper describes an empirical law of friction for rock joints which can be used both for extrapolating and predicting shear strength data. The equation is based on three index parameters; the joint roughness coefficientJRC, the joint wall compressive strengthJCS, and the residual friction angleφ r . All these index values can be measured in the laboratory. They can also be measured in the field. Index tests and subsequent shear box tests on more than 100 joint samples have demonstrated thatφ r can be estimated to within ± 1° for any one of the eight rock types investigated. The mean value of the peak shear strength angle (arctanτ/σ n ) for the same 100 joints was estimated to within 1/2°. The exceptionally close prediction of peak strength is made possible by performing self-weight (low stress) sliding tests on blocks with throughgoing joints. The total friction angle (arctanτ/σ n ) at which sliding occurs provides an estimate of the joint roughness coefficientJRC. The latter is constant over a range of effective normal stress of at least four orders of magnitude. However, it is found that bothJRC andJCS reduce with increasing joint length. Increasing the length of joint therefore reduces not only the peak shear strength, but also the peak dilation angle and the peak shear stiffness. These important scale effects can be predicted at a fraction of the cost of performing large scale in situ direct shear tests.

2,139 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the deformation characteristics of rock joints under normal and shear loading were investigated by conducting loading/unloading and repeated load cycling tests on a wide variety of fresh and weathered joints in five different rock types.

1,490 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of many years of research on joint properties are synthesized in a coupled joint behaviour model, which simulates stress and size-dependent coupling of shear stress, diplacement, dilation and conductivity.

1,269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a linkage type element is developed for adding rock joint stiffness to the structural stiffness matrix describing the behavior of a system of rock blocks and joints and a new classification of joints is introduced, based on the application of the joint element to finite element analysis of structures in jointed rock.
Abstract: The representation of discontinuities in analysis of blocky rock is discussed. A linkage type element is developed for addition of rock joint stiffness to the structural stiffness matrix describing the behavior of a system of rock blocks and joints. Several basic problems of jointed rock are studied. These examples demonstrate the marked influence joints may have on the stress distribution, displacements, and failure pattern of an underground opening or other structures in jointed rock. A new classification of joints is introduced, based on the application of the joint element to finite element analysis of structures in jointed rock. Normal stiffness, tangential stiffness, and shear strength are used as parameters in the classification system. The methods discussed in this paper allow a jointed rock mass to be treated as a system of blocks and links. Just as analysis of a reinforced concrete building requires detailed knowledge of the behavior of concrete alone and steel alone, the joint stiffness approach calls for and uses detailed description of the behavior of rock blocks and rock joints independently.

1,186 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a sliding scale of roughness is proposed for estimating the shear strength of rough joints, and the curvature of the proposed strength envelopes reduces as the roughness coefficient reduces, and also varies with the strength of the weathered joint wall or unweathered rock.

1,168 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202233
2021773
2020746
2019708
2018653
2017596