Topic

# K shortest path routing

About: K shortest path routing is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3735 publications have been published within this topic receiving 95224 citations.

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TL;DR: The procedure was originally programmed in FORTRAN for the Control Data 160 desk-size computer and was limited to te t ra t ion because subroutine recursiveness in CONTROL Data 160 FORTRan has been held down to four levels in the interests of economy.

Abstract: procedure ari thmetic (a, b, c, op); in t eger a, b, c, op; ¢ o n l m e n t This procedure will perform different order ar i thmetic operations with b and c, put t ing the result in a. The order of the operation is given by op. For op = 1 addit ion is performed. For op = 2 multiplicaLion, repeated addition, is done. Beyond these the operations are non-commutat ive. For op = 3 exponentiat ion, repeated multiplication, is done, raising b to the power c. Beyond these the question of grouping is important . The innermost implied parentheses are at the right. The hyper-exponent is always c. For op = 4 te t ra t ion, repeated exponentiat ion, is done. For op = 5, 6, 7, etc., the procedure performs pentat ion, hexation, heptat ion, etc., respectively. The routine was originally programmed in FORTRAN for the Control Data 160 desk-size computer. The original program was limited to te t ra t ion because subroutine recursiveness in Control Data 160 FORTRAN has been held down to four levels in the interests of economy. The input parameter , b, c, and op, must be positive integers, not zero; b e g i n own i n t e g e r d, e, f, drop; i f o p = 1 t h e n b e g i n a := h-4c; go t o l e n d i f o p = 2 t h e n d := 0; else d := 1; e := c; drop := op 1; for f := I s t e p 1 u n t i l e do b e g i n ari thmetic (a, b, d, drop);

3,848 citations

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TL;DR: The significance of the new algorithm is that its computational upper bound increases only linearly with the value of K, so it is extremely efficient as compared with the algorithms proposed by Bock, Kantner, and Haynes and others.

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm for finding the K loopless paths that have the shortest lengths from one node to another node in a network. The significance of the new algorithm is that its computational upper bound increases only linearly with the value of K. Consequently, in general, the new algorithm is extremely efficient as compared with the algorithms proposed by Bock, Kantner, and Haynes [2], Pollack [7], [8], Clarke, Krikorian, and Rausan [3], Sakarovitch [9] and others. This paper first reviews the algorithms presently available for finding the K shortest loopless paths in terms of the computational effort and memory addresses they require. This is followed by the presentation of the new algorithm and its justification. Finally, the efficiency of the new algorithm is examined and compared with that of other algorithms.

2,135 citations

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AT&T Labs

^{1}TL;DR: Surprisingly it turned out that for the proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone, weight settings that performed within a few percent from that of the optimal general routing where the flow for each demand is optimally distributed over all paths between source and destination.

Abstract: Open shortest path first (OSPF) is the most commonly used intra-domain Internet routing protocol. Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes where several outgoing links are on shortest paths to the destination. The weights of the links, and thereby the shortest path routes, can be changed by the network operator. The weights could be set proportional to their physical distances, but often the main goal is to avoid congestion, i.e., overloading of links, and the standard heuristic recommended by Cisco is to make the weight of a link inversely proportional to its capacity. Our starting point was a proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone with demands projected from previous measurements. The desire was to optimize the weight setting based on the projected demands. We showed that optimizing the weight settings for a given set of demands is NP-hard, so we resorted to a local search heuristic. Surprisingly it turned out that for the proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone, we found weight settings that performed within a few percent from that of the optimal general routing where the flow for each demand is optimally distributed over all paths between source and destination. This contrasts the common belief that OSPF routing leads to congestion and it shows that for the network and demand matrix studied we cannot get a substantially better load balancing by switching to the proposed more flexible multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) technologies. Our techniques were also tested on synthetic internetworks, based on a model of Zegura et al., (1996), for which we did not always get quite as close to the optimal general routing.

1,200 citations

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TL;DR: A shortest augmenting path algorithm for the linear assignment problem that contains new initialization routines and a special implementation of Dijkstra's shortest path method is developed.

Abstract: We develop a shortest augmenting path algorithm for the linear assignment problem. It contains new initialization routines and a special implementation of Dijkstra's shortest path method. For both dense and sparse problems computational experiments show this algorithm to be uniformly faster than the best algorithms from the literature. A Pascal implementation is presented.

1,196 citations

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01 Oct 1959

TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the length of the shortest closed path through n points in a bounded plane region of area v is almost always asymptotically proportional to √(nv) for large n; and this result was extended to bounded Lebesgue sets in k-dimensional Euclidean space.

Abstract: We prove that the length of the shortest closed path through n points in a bounded plane region of area v is ‘almost always’ asymptotically proportional to √(nv) for large n; and we extend this result to bounded Lebesgue sets in k–dimensional Euclidean space. The constants of proportionality depend only upon the dimensionality of the space, and are independent of the shape of the region. We give numerical bounds for these constants for various values of k; and we estimate the constant in the particular case k = 2. The results are relevant to the travelling-salesman problem, Steiner's street network problem, and the Loberman—Weinberger wiring problem. They have possible generalizations in the direction of Plateau's problem and Douglas' problem.

902 citations