Topic

# K-tree

About: K-tree is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 427 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 12096 citation(s).

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TL;DR: Two backtracking algorithms are presented, using a branchand-bound technique [4] to cut off branches that cannot lead to a clique, and generates cliques in a rather unpredictable order in an attempt to minimize the number of branches to be traversed.

Abstract: Description bttroductian. A maximal complete subgraph (clique) is a complete subgraph that is not contained in any other complete subgraph. A recent paper [1] describes a number of techniques to find maximal complete subgraphs of a given undirected graph. In this paper, we present two backtracking algorithms, using a branchand-bound technique [4] to cut off branches that cannot lead to a clique. The first version is a straightforward implementation of the basic algorithm. It is mainly presented to illustrate the method used. This version generates cliques in alphabetic (lexicographic) order. The second version is derived from the first and generates cliques in a rather unpredictable order in an attempt to minimize the number of branches to be traversed. This version tends to produce the larger cliques first and to generate sequentially cliques having a large common intersection. The detailed algorithm for version 2 is presented here. Description o f the algorithm--Version 1. Three sets play an important role in the algorithm. (1) The set compsub is the set to be extended by a new point or shrunk by one point on traveling along a branch of the backtracking tree. The points that are eligible to extend compsub, i.e. that are connected to all points in compsub, are collected recursively in the remaining two sets. (2) The set candidates is the set of all points that will in due time serve as an extension to the present configuration of compsub. (3) The set not is the set of all points that have at an earlier stage already served as an extension of the present configuration of compsub and are now explicitly excluded. The reason for maintaining this set trot will soon be made clear. The core of the algorithm consists of a recursively defined extension operator that will be applied to the three sets Just described. It has the duty to generate all extensions of the given configuration of compsub that it can make with the given set of candidates and that do not contain any of the points in not. To put it differently: all extensions of compsub containing any point in not have already been generated. The basic mechanism now consists of the following five steps:

2,202 citations

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Abstract: A clique is a maximal complete subgraph of a graph. The maximum number of cliques possible in a graph withn nodes is determined. Also, bounds are obtained for the number of different sizes of cliques possible in such a graph.

831 citations

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TL;DR: A depth-first search algorithm for generating all maximal cliques of an undirected graph, in which pruning methods are employed as in the Bron-Kerbosch algorithm, which proves that its worst-case time complexity is O(3n/3) for an n-vertex graph.

Abstract: We present a depth-first search algorithm for generating all maximal cliques of an undirected graph, in which pruning methods are employed as in the Bron-Kerbosch algorithm. All the maximal cliques generated are output in a tree-like form. Subsequently, we prove that its worst-case time complexity is O(3n/3) for an n-vertex graph. This is optimal as a function of n, since there exist up to 3n/3 maximal cliques in an n-vertex graph. The algorithm is also demonstrated to run very fast in practice by computational experiments.

668 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents ways for constructing efficient algorithms for finding a minimum coloring, a minimum covering by cliques, a maximum clique, and a maximum independent set given a chordal graph.

Abstract: A finite undirected graph is called chordal if every simple circuit has a chord. Given a chordal graph, we present, ways for constructing efficient algorithms for finding a minimum coloring, a minimum covering by cliques, a maximum clique, and a maximum independent set. The proofs are based on a theorem of D. Rose [3] that a finite graph is chordal if and only if it has some special orientation called an R-orientation. In the last part of this paper we prove that an infinite graph is chordal if and only if it has an R-orientation.

520 citations

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Yale University

^{1}TL;DR: It is proved that, in the new formulation, there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal cliques and maximal subtree isomorphisms, which allows the tree matching problem to be cast as an indefinite quadratic program using the Motzkin-Straus theorem.

Abstract: It is well-known that the problem of matching two relational structures can be posed as an equivalent problem of finding a maximal clique in a (derived) "association graph." However, it is not clear how to apply this approach to computer vision problems where the graphs are hierarchically organized, i.e., are trees, since maximal cliques are not constrained to preserve the partial order. We provide a solution to the problem of matching two trees by constructing the association graph using the graph-theoretic concept of connectivity. We prove that, in the new formulation, there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal cliques and maximal subtree isomorphisms. This allows us to cast the tree matching problem as an indefinite quadratic program using the Motzkin-Straus theorem, and we use "replicator" dynamical systems developed in theoretical biology to solve it. Such continuous solutions to discrete problems are attractive because they can motivate analog and biological implementations. The framework is also extended to the matching of attributed trees by using weighted association graphs. We illustrate the power of the approach by matching articulated and deformed shapes described by shock trees.

429 citations