About: Kaolinite is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8545 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 224537 citation(s). The topic is also known as: myelin.
05 Aug 2008-Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
TL;DR: The feasibility of using two important and common clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, as adsorbents for removal of toxic heavy metals has been reviewed.
Abstract: The feasibility of using two important and common clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, as adsorbents for removal of toxic heavy metals has been reviewed. A good number of works have been reported where the modifications of these natural clays were done to carry the adsorption of metals from aqueous solutions. The modification was predominantly done by pillaring with various polyoxy cations of Zr4+, Al3+, Si4+, Ti4+, Fe3+, Cr3+or Ga3+, etc. Preparation of pillared clays with quaternary ammonium cations, namely, tetramethylammonium-, tetramethylphosphonium- and trimethyl-phenylammonium-, N′-didodecyl-N, N′-tetramethylethanediammonium, etc, are also common. Moreover, the acid treatment of clays often boosted their adsorption capacities. The adsorption of toxic metals, viz., As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, etc., have been studied predominantly. Montmorillonite and its modified forms have much higher metal adsorption capacity compared to that of kaolinite as well as modified-kaolinite.
01 Dec 2005-Clay Minerals
Abstract: Halloysite clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils and weathered rocks where they occur in a variety of particle shapes and hydration states. Diversity also characterizes their chemical composition, cation exchange capacity and potassium selectivity. This review summarizes the extensive but scattered literature on halloysite, from its natural occurrence, through its crystal structure, chemical and morphological diversity, to its reactivity toward organic compounds, ions and salts, involving the various methods of differentiating halloysite from kaolinite. No unique test seems to be ideal to distinguish these 1:1 clay minerals, especially in soils. The occurrence of 2:1 phyllosilicate contaminants appears, so far, to provide the best explanation for the high charge and potassium selectivity of halloysite. Yet, hydration properties of the mineral probably play a major role in ion sorption. Clear trends seem to relate particle morphology and structural Fe. However, future work is required to understand the possible mechanisms linking chemical, morphological, hydration and charge properties of halloysite.
Fred G. Bell1•Institutions (1)
01 Jul 1996-Engineering Geology
Abstract: Clay soil can be stabilized by the addition of small percentages, by weight, of lime, thereby enhancing many of the engineering properties of the soil and producing an improved construction material. In order to illustrate such improvements, three of the most frequently occurring minerals in clay deposits, namely, kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz were subjected to a series of tests. As lime stabilization is most often used in relation to road construction, the tests were chosen with this in mind. Till and laminated clay were treated in similar fashion. With the addition of lime, the plasticity of montmorillonite was reduced whilst that of kaolinite and quartz was increased somewhat. However, the addition of lime to the till had little influence on its plasticity but a significant reduction occurred in that of the laminated clay. All materials experienced an increase in their optimum moisture content and a decrease in their maximum dry density, as well as enhanced California bearing ratio, on addition of lime. Some notable increases in strength and Young's Modulus occurred in these materials when they were treated with lime. Length of time curing and temperature at which curing took place had an important influence on the amount of strength developed.
01 Mar 1979-Journal of Sedimentary Research
Abstract: Sandstones and shales of the Wilcox Group (lower Eocene) in southwest Texas were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, electron microprobe, and petrographically to interpret their diagenetic history. Samples analyzed are from depths of 975 to 4650 m, representing a temperature range of 55°C to 210°C. No consistent trend of depositional environments is recognized with increasing depth, and mineralogic changes observed are interpreted as diagenetic. Major mineral distribution patterns are (1) disappearance of discrete smectite at temperatures >70°C, (2) gradation of mixed-layer illite/smectite to less expandable (more illitic) illite/smectite over the entire temperature range, (3) disappearance of kaolinite from 150-200°C accompanied by an increase in chlorite, and (4) replacement of calcite cement at about 117 120°C by ankerite. Calculations based on data of Hower and others (1976) indicate that the stability of smectite layers may be a function of composition. Smectites with high ratios of octahedral (Fe + Mg)/Al appear to resist conversion to illite until temperatures high enough to produce ordering are attained. A diagenetic model is proposed which involves the breakdown of detrital K-feldspar and of some smectite layers in illite/smectite to convert other smectite layers to illite. Silica and calcium released by the illitization of smectite is transferred from shales to sandstones to produce quartz overgrowths and calcite cements at temperatures as low as 60°C. Iron and magnesium released by the illitization reaction are transferred from shales to sandstones at temperatures >100°C and react with kaolinite to produce high-alumina chlorite and/or with calcite to produce ankerite.
01 Dec 1988-Clay Minerals
Abstract: A B S T RA C T : The relationships between the composition and the crystallization temperature of chlorites and illites have been investigated in different geothermal fields and in particular the Los Azufres system in Mexico, considered to be a natural analogue to experimental laboratories, as the main changes in physical and chemical conditions and mineralogy are related to progressively increasing temperature with depth. Temperature was estimated from combined geothermometric approaches, and especially from fluid inclusion studies on quartz coexisting with clays. The Al(lv) content in the tetrahedral site of chlorites, and the K content and total interlayer occupancy of illites increase with temperature. These chemical changes are mainly related to the marked decrease in the molar fraction of the Si(lv)-rich end-members (kaolinite for chlorites, and pyrophyllite for illites) which become negligible at ~ 300~ Other chemical changes, such as the variation in Fe and Mg contents, are partly influenced by temperature, but are strongly dependent on the geological environment, and consequently on the solution composition. The empirical relationships between chemical variables and temperature were calibrated from 150-300~ but extrapolations at lower and higher temperatures seem possible for chlorites. Such geothermometers provide tools for estimating the crystallization temperature of the clays, and are important for the study of diagenetic, hydrothermal and low-T metamorphic processes. Clay minerals are the most abundant minerals in most of the geological environments submitted to temperatures from 50 ~ to 350~ where estimation of the crystallization temperature of the clay minerals may be difficult. Most of the classical geothermometers cannot be applied, fluid inclusions may be absent, and experimental data are scarce. Nevertheless, such temperature estimations are of critical importance for geological studies related to oil field exploration, as well as for diagenetic and low-T metamorphic processes. 1"here are three types of chemical or crystallographic change occurring in the clay fraction of rocks which may indicate temperature of crystallization. (1) The changes in the clay mineral assemblages described in studies of the burial metamorphism of sediments (Weaver, 1959; Dunoyer de Segonzac, 1970; Perry & Hower, 1970; Velde, 1977) and the thermal metamorphism of rocks in geothermal fields (Schoen & White, 1966; Steiner, 1968; Tomason & Kristmannsdottir , 1972; Cathelineau & Izquierdo, 1988). However, only the boundaries between two mineral assemblages may yield a temperature estimate, largely restricting their use.