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Koch snowflake

About: Koch snowflake is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 666 publications have been published within this topic receiving 7509 citations. The topic is also known as: Koch curve & Koch star.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fractal antenna engineering has been primarily focused in two areas: the first deals with the analysis and design of fractal antenna elements, and the second concerns the application of Fractal concepts to the design of antenna arrays as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Recent efforts by several researchers around the world to combine fractal geometry with electromagnetic theory have led to a plethora of new and innovative antenna designs. In this report, we provide a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the rapidly growing field of fractal antenna engineering. Fractal antenna engineering research has been primarily focused in two areas: the first deals with the analysis and design of fractal antenna elements, and the second concerns the application of fractal concepts to the design of antenna arrays. Fractals have no characteristic size, and are generally composed of many copies of themselves at different scales. These unique properties of fractals have been exploited in order to develop a new class of antenna-element designs that are multi-band and/or compact in size. On the other hand, fractal arrays are a subset of thinned arrays, and have been shown to possess several highly desirable properties, including multi-band performance, low sidelobe levels, and the ability to develop rapid beamforming algorithms based on the recursive nature of fractals. Fractal elements and arrays are also ideal candidates for use in reconfigurable systems. Finally, we provide a brief summary of recent work in the related area of fractal frequency-selective surfaces.

1,055 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the behavior of the small fractal Koch monopole is numerically and experimentally analyzed, and it is shown that as the number of iterations on the small Koch monopoles are increased, the Q of the antenna approaches the fundamental limit for small antennas.
Abstract: Fractal objects have some unique geometrical properties. One of them is the possibility to enclose in a finite area an infinitely long curve. The resulting curve is highly convoluted being nowhere differentiable. One such curve is the Koch curve. In this paper, the behavior the Koch monopole is numerically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that as the number of iterations on the small fractal Koch monopole are increased, the Q of the antenna approaches the fundamental limit for small antennas.

457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study determined how to prepare an image for box-counting analysis, to define reasonable preferences for using the Fractal Dimension Calculator software, and to develop a routine procedure for defining the most appropriate range of box sizes for any one-piece image.

286 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a long wire fractal antenna based on the Koch curve is presented, which improves the features of a common linear monopole by increasing the radiation resistance and reducing the Q at each fractal iteration.
Abstract: A small but long wire fractal antenna based on the Koch curve is presented. Experimental and numerical results show that the antenna improves the features of a common linear monopole. The radiation resistance is increased and the Q is reduced at each fractal iteration, approaching the fundamental limit on small antennas.

256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a low-profile wearable antenna is presented for on-body wireless body area network (WBAN) applications, which combines the Koch fractal geometry, meandering slits, and defected ground structure to achieve a novel hybrid structure with compact footprint, good structural conformability, and enhanced impedance bandwidth.
Abstract: A compact and low-profile wearable antenna is presented for on-body wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. The proposed triangular patch antenna is designed using low-cost widely available vinyl polymer-based flexible substrate. The final antenna topology is obtained by the combination of the Koch fractal geometry, meandering slits, and defected ground structure, to achieve a novel hybrid structure with compact footprint, good structural conformability, and enhanced impedance bandwidth (BW) to operate in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical band with center frequency at 2.45 GHz. The fabricated prototype of the antenna has shown a good agreement between numerical and experimental results. In comparison to state-of-the-art prototypes, our design has more compact form factor of 0.318λo × 0.318λo × 0.004λo, along with 7.75% impedance BW, a peak gain of 2.06 dBi, and overall radiated efficiency of 75%. For the assessment of a specific absorption rate (SAR) performance of our design, it is tested on realistic heterogeneous HUGO voxel model. Both numerical and experimental investigations revealed extremely good robustness to both human body loading and structural deformation, making it an ideal candidate for flexible and body-worn devices.

179 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20236
202220
202143
202040
201940
201848