Topic

# Ladder operator

About: Ladder operator is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3019 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 63439 citation(s).

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Abstract: The spectrum of the Fokker-Planck operator for weakly coupled gases is considered. The operator is decomposed into operators acting on functions whose angular dependence is given by spherical harmonics. It is shown that the operator corresponding to l = 0 has zero for a point eigenvalue (the eigenfunction is the Maxwell distribution). There are no other point eigenvalues and the continuous spectrum of all of the operators is the entire negative real axis. Some consequences are briefly discussed.

1,043 citations

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Abstract: An alteration in the notation used to indicate the order of operation of noncommuting quantities is suggested. Instead of the order being defined by the position on the paper, an ordering subscript is introduced so that AsBs′ means AB or BA depending on whether s exceeds s′ or vice versa. Then As can be handled as though it were an ordinary numerical function of s. An increase in ease of manipulating some operator expressions results. Connection to the theory of functionals is discussed in an appendix. Illustrative applications to quantum mechanics are made. In quantum electrodynamics it permits a simple formal understanding of the interrelation of the various present day theoretical formulations.
The operator expression of the Dirac equation is related to the author's previous description of positrons. An attempt is made to interpret the operator ordering parameter in this case as a fifth coordinate variable in an extended Dirac equation. Fock's parametrization, discussed in an appendix, seems to be easier to interpret.
In the last section a summary of the numerical constants appearing in formulas for transition probabilities is given.

929 citations

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Abstract: The phase operator for an oscillator is shown not to exist. It is replaced by a pair of non-commuting sin and cos operators which can be used to define uncertainty relations for phase and number. The relation between phase and angle operators is carefully discussed. The possibility of using a phase variable as a quantum clock is demonstrated and the states for which the clock is most accurate are constructed.

699 citations