Topic

# Laminar flame speed

About: Laminar flame speed is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5824 publications have been published within this topic receiving 160617 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent, and a new coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description.

Abstract: The laminar flamelet concept covers a regime in turbulent combustion where chemistry (as compared to transport processes) is fast such that it occurs in asymptotically thin layers—called flamelets—embedded within the turbulent flow field. This situation occurs in most practical combustion systems including reciprocating engines and gas turbine combustors. The inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent. This is shown by an asymptotic expansion for the Damkohler number of the rate determining reaction which is assumed to be large. Other non-dimensional chemical parameters such as the nondimensional activation energy or Zeldovich number may also be large and may be related to the Damkohler number by a distinguished asymptoiic limit. Examples of the flamelet structure are presented using onestep model kinetics or a reduced four-step quasi-global mechanism for methane flames. For non-premixed combustion a formal coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description. The instantaneous scalar dissipation rate χ of the conserved scalar Z is identified to represent the diffusion time scale that is compared with the chemical time scale in the definition of the Damkohler number. Flame stretch increases the scalar dissipation rate in a turbulent flow field. If it exceeds a critical value χ q the diffusion flamelet will extinguish. Considering the probability density distribution of χ , it is shown how local extinction reduces the number of burnable flamelets and thereby the mean reaction rate. Furthermore, local extinction events may interrupt the connection to burnable flamelets which are not yet reached by an ignition source and will therefore not be ignited. This phenomenon, described by percolation theory, is used to derive criteria for the stability of lifted flames. It is shown how values of ∋ q obtained from laminar experiments scale with turbulent residence times to describe lift-off of turbulent jet diffusion flames. For non-premixed combustion it is concluded that the outer mixing field—by imposing the scalar dissipation rate—dominates the flamelet behaviour because the flamelet is attached to the surface of stoichiometric mixture. The flamelet response may be two-fold: burning or non-burning quasi-stationary states. This is the reason why classical turbulence models readily can be used in the flamelet regime of non-premixed combustion. The extent to which burnable yet non-burning flamelets and unsteady transition events contribute to the overall statistics in turbulent non-premixed flames needs still to be explored further. For premixed combustion the interaction between flamelets and the outer flow is much stronger because the flame front can propagate normal to itself. The chemical time scale and the thermal diffusivity determine the flame thickness and the flame velocity. The flamelet concept is valid if the flame thickness is smaller than the smallest length scale in the turbulent flow, the Kolmogorov scale. Also, if the turbulence intensity v′ is larger than the laminar flame velocity, there is a local interaction between the flame front and the turbulent flow which corrugates the front. A new length scale L G =v F 3 /∈ , the Gibson scale, is introduced which describes the smaller size of the burnt gas pockets of the front. Here v F is the laminar flame velocity and ∈ the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the oncoming flow. Eddies smaller than L G cannot corrugate the flame front due to their smaller circumferential velocity while larger eddies up to the macro length scale will only convect the front within the flow field. Flame stretch effects are the most efficient at the smallest scale L G . If stretch combined with differential diffusion of temperature and the deficient reactant, represented by a Lewis number different from unity, is imposed on the flamelet, its inner structure will respond leading to a change in flame velocity and in some cases to extinction. Transient effects of this response are much more important than for diffusion flamelets. A new mechanism of premixed flamelet extinction, based on the diffusion of radicals out of the reaction zone, is described by Rogg. Recent progress in the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation and the pdf-transport equation approach by Pope are presented. Finally, different approaches to predict the turbulent flame velocity including an argument based on the fractal dimension of the flame front are discussed.

1,179 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an asymptotic nonlinear integrodifferential equation for spontaneous instability of the plane front of a laminar flame is derived, and it is shown that in all cases spontaneous instability implies an increase in its propagation velocity.

Abstract: An asymptotic nonlinear integrodifferential equation is derived for spontaneous instability of the plane front of a laminar flame. If the combustible mixture is deficient in the light component, spontaneous instability will lead to self-turbulization of the flame, and the flame front assumes a strongly nonstationary cellular structure. If there is an excess of the light component, spontaneous instability produces stationary, irregular wrinkles on the flame front, and the flame continues to propagate in a laminar regime. It is shown that in all cases spontaneous instability of the flame implies an increase in its propagation velocity.

1,159 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a subgrid scale model for large eddy simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is developed and validated, based on the concept of artificially thickened flames, keeping constant the laminar flame speed sl 0.

Abstract: A subgrid scale model for large eddy simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is developed and validated. The approach is based on the concept of artificially thickened flames, keeping constant the laminar flame speed sl0. This thickening is simply achieved by decreasing the pre-exponential factor of the chemical Arrhenius law whereas the molecular diffusion is enhanced. When the flame is thickened, the combustion–turbulence interaction is affected and must be modeled. This point is investigated here using direct numerical simulations of flame–vortex interactions and an efficiency function E is introduced to incorporate thickening effects in the subgrid scale model. The input parameters in E are related to the subgrid scale turbulence (velocity and length scales). An efficient approach, based on similarity assumptions, is developed to extract these quantities from the resolved velocity field. A specific operator is developed to exclude the dilatational part of the velocity field from the estimation of...

859 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensively tested H2/O2 chemical kinetic mechanism based on the work of Mueller et al. 1 and recently published kinetic and thermodynamic information is presented in this paper, which is validated against a wide range of experimental conditions, including those found in shock tubes, flow reactors, and laminar premixed flame.

Abstract: A comprehensively tested H2/O2 chemical kinetic mechanism based on the work of Mueller et al. 1 and recently published kinetic and thermodynamic information is presented. The revised mechanism is validated against a wide range of experimental conditions, including those found in shock tubes, flow reactors, and laminar premixed flame. Excellent agreement of the model predictions with the experimental observations demonstrates that the mechanism is comprehensive and has good predictive capabilities for different experimental systems, including new results published subsequent to the work of Mueller et al. 1, particularly high-pressure laminar flame speed and shock tube ignition results. The reaction H + OH + M is found to be primarily significant only to laminar flame speed propagation predictions at high pressure. All experimental hydrogen flame speed observations can be adequately fit using any of the several transport coefficient estimates presently available in the literature for the hydrogen/oxygen system simply by adjusting the rate parameters for this reaction within their present uncertainties. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 36: 566–575, 2004

851 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, global reaction schemes for the combustion of alkane hydrocarbons up to butane in mixtures with air in premixed and diffusion flames have been derived using analysis of flame structures.

Abstract: Global reaction schemes for the combustion of alkane hydrocarbons up to butane in mixtures with air in premixed and diffusion flames have been derived using analysis of flame structures. The schemes include two competing fuel breakdown reactions, and equilibrium assumptions have been used to derive initial estimates of the forms of the rate expressions. The deduced four-step reaction mechanism is C n H 2n+2 + n 2 O 2 ⤳n CO +(n+1) H 2 C n H 2n +n H 2 O⤳n CO +(2n+1) H 2 H 2 + 1 2 ⇌ H 2 O CO + H 2 O ⇌ CO 2 + H 2 The final kinetic parameters for the resulting rate equations have been determined by comparisons with experimental data for premixed methane and propane flames, along with diffusion flame data for a methane-air flame. The resulting schemes have been found to combine mathematic tractability with good agreement for a range of flame parameters such as flame speed, flame thickness, and species profiles.

824 citations