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Laminar flow

About: Laminar flow is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 56036 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1229025 citation(s). The topic is also known as: streamline flow.

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01 Jan 1955
Abstract: The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one ob~erves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.

17,189 citations

01 Jan 1974
Abstract: 1 Preliminary Concepts 2 Fundamental Equations of Compressible Viscous Flow 3 Solutions of the Newtonian Viscous-Flow Equations 4 Laminar Boundary Layers 5 The Stability of Laminar Flows 6 Incompressible Turbulent Mean Flow 7 Compressible Boundary Layer Flow Appendices A Transport Properties of Various Newtonian Fluids B Equations of Motion of Incompressible Newtonian Fluids in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates C A Runge-Kutta Subroutine for N Simultaneous Differential Equations Bibliography Index

6,567 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: One major drawback of the eddy viscosity subgrid‐scale stress models used in large‐eddy simulations is their inability to represent correctly with a single universal constant different turbulent fields in rotating or sheared flows, near solid walls, or in transitional regimes. In the present work a new eddy viscosity model is presented which alleviates many of these drawbacks. The model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model is based on an algebraic identity between the subgrid‐scale stresses at two different filtered levels and the resolved turbulent stresses. The subgrid‐scale stresses obtained using the proposed model vanish in laminar flow and at a solid boundary, and have the correct asymptotic behavior in the near‐wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. The results of large‐eddy simulations of transitional and turbulent channel flow that use the proposed model are in good agreement with the direct simulation data.

6,329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A general, numerical, marching procedure is presented for the calculation of the transport processes in three-dimensional flows characterised by the presence of one coordinate in which physical influences are exerted in only one direction. Such flows give rise to parabolic differential equations and so can be called three-dimensional parabolic flows. The procedure can be regarded as a boundary-layer method, provided it is recognised that, unlike earlier published methods with this name, it takes full account of the cross-stream diffusion of momentum, etc., and of the pressure variation in the cross-stream plane. The pressure field is determined by: first calculating an intermediate velocity field based on an estimated pressure field; and then obtaining appropriate correction so as to satisfy the continuity equation. To illustrate the procedure, calculations are presented for the developing laminar flow and heat transfer in a square duct with a laterally-moving wall.

5,560 citations

Journal Article
01 Jun 1978
Abstract: The standard κ-ϵ equations and other turbulence models are evaluated with respect to their applicability in swirling, recirculating flows. The turbulence models are formulated on the basis of two separate viewpoints. The first perspective assumes that an isotropic eddy viscosity and the modified Boussinesq hypothesis adequately describe the stress distributions, and that the source of predictive error is a consequence of the modeled terms in the κ-ϵ equations. Both stabilizing and destabilizing Richardson number corrections are incorporated to investigate this line of reasoning. A second viewpoint proposes that the eddy viscosity approach is inherently inadequate and that a redistribution of the stress magnitudes is necessary. Investigation of higher-order closure is pursued on the level of an algebraic stress closure. Various turbulence model predictions are compared with experimental data from a variety of isothermal, confined studies. Supportive swirl comparisons are also performed for a laminar flow case, as well as reacting flow cases. Parallel predictions or contributions from other sources are also consulted where appropriate. Predictive accuracy was found to be a partial function of inlet boundary conditions and numerical diffusion. Despite prediction sensitivity to inlet conditions and numerics, the data comparisons delineate the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various modifications. Possible research avenues in the area of computational modeling of strongly swirling, recirculating flows are reviewed and discussed.

5,386 citations

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