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Laser linewidth

About: Laser linewidth is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19889 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 343799 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Michael H. Huang1, Samuel S. Mao, Henning Feick1, Haoquan Yan2  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Jun 2001-Science
TL;DR: Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing in semiconductor nanowire arrays has been demonstrated and self-organized, <0001> oriented zinc oxide nanowires grown on sapphire substrates were synthesized with a simple vapor transport and condensation process.

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Abstract: Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing in semiconductor nanowire arrays has been demonstrated The self-organized, oriented zinc oxide nanowires grown on sapphire substrates were synthesized with a simple vapor transport and condensation process These wide band-gap semiconductor nanowires form natural laser cavities with diameters varying from 20 to 150 nanometers and lengths up to 10 micrometers Under optical excitation, surface-emitting lasing action was observed at 385 nanometers, with an emission linewidth less than 03 nanometer The chemical flexibility and the one-dimensionality of the nanowires make them ideal miniaturized laser light sources These short-wavelength nanolasers could have myriad applications, including optical computing, information storage, and microanalysis

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8,414 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Charles H. Henry1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A theory of the spectral width of a single-mode semiconductor laser is presented and used to explain the recent measurements of Fleming and Mooradian on AlGaAs lasers. They found the linewidth to be inversely proportional to power and to have a value of 114 MHz at 1 mW per facet. This value is 30 times greater than can be explained by existing theories. The enhanced linewidth is attributed to the variation of the real refractive index n' with carrier density. Spontaneous emission induces phase and intensity changes in the laser field. The restoration of the laser to its steady-state intensity results in changes in the imaginary part of the refractive index \Delta n" . These changes are accompanied by changes in the real part of the refractive index \Delta n' , which cause additional phase fluctuations and line broadening. The linewidth enhancement is shown to be 1 + \alpha^{2} , where \alpha = \Delta n'/\Delta n" . A value of \alpha \approx 5.4 , needed to explain the observed linewidth, is close to the experimental values of a of 4.6 and 6.2.

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2,169 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Na Liu1, Lutz Langguth1, Thomas Weiss1, Jürgen Kästel2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Sep 2009-Nature Materials
TL;DR: A nanoplasmonic analogue of EIT is experimentally demonstrated using a stacked optical metamaterial to achieve a very narrow transparency window with high modulation depth owing to nearly complete suppression of radiative losses.

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Abstract: In atomic physics, the coherent coupling of a broad and a narrow resonance leads to quantum interference and provides the general recipe for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). A sharp resonance of nearly perfect transmission can arise within a broad absorption profile. These features show remarkable potential for slow light, novel sensors and low-loss metamaterials. In nanophotonics, plasmonic structures enable large field strengths within small mode volumes. Therefore, combining EIT with nanoplasmonics would pave the way towards ultracompact sensors with extremely high sensitivity. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a nanoplasmonic analogue of EIT using a stacked optical metamaterial. A dipole antenna with a large radiatively broadened linewidth is coupled to an underlying quadrupole antenna, of which the narrow linewidth is solely limited by the fundamental non-radiative Drude damping. In accordance with EIT theory, we achieve a very narrow transparency window with high modulation depth owing to nearly complete suppression of radiative losses. Plasmonic nanostructures enable the concentration of large electric fields into small spaces. The classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency has now been achieved in such devices, leading to a narrow resonance in their absorption spectrum. This combination of high electric-field concentration and sharp resonance offers a pathway to ultracompact sensors with extremely high sensitivity.

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1,510 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
M. Balkanski1, R. F. Wallis1, E. Haro1Institutions (1)
15 Aug 1983-Physical Review B
Abstract: Systematic measurements by light scattering of the linewidth and frequency shift of the $\stackrel{\ensuremath{\rightarrow}}{\mathrm{q}}=0$ optical phonon in silicon over the temperature range of 5-1400 K are presented. Both the linewidth and frequency shift exhibit a quadratic dependence on temperature at high temperatures. This indicates the necessity of including terms in the phonon proper self-energy corresponding to four-phonon anharmonic processes.

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1,046 citations


Book
31 Jul 1988-
Abstract: 1 Introduction.- 2 Basic Laser Characteristics.- 2.1 Double heterostructure characteristics.- 2.2 Direct and indirect semiconductors.- 2.2.1 Energy- and momentum conservation.- 2.2.2 Semiconductor materials for direct and indirect semiconductors.- 2.3 Emission and absorption.- 2.3.1 Density of photon oscillation states.- 2.3.2 Principal mechanisms of radiative transitions.- 2.3.3 Carrier lifetime and lifetime of spontaneous emission.- 2.3.4 Gain and stimulated emission.- 2.4 Lasing characteristics of Fabry-Perot-type lasers.- 2.4.1 Lasing conditions.- 2.4.2 Dynamic characteristics of laser operation.- 2.4.3 Light current characteristics, threshold current and quantum efficiency.- 2.4.4 Basic laser structures.- 2.4.5 Modifications for the spontaneous emission term.- 2.5 Dynamic single-mode laser structures.- 2.5.1 DFB laser characteristics.- References.- 3 Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Lasing Emission.- 3.1 Multimode rate equations.- 3.2 Spectral envelope for Fabry-1 Introduction.- 2 Basic Laser Characteristics.- 2.1 Double heterostructure characteristics.- 2.2 Direct and indirect semiconductors.- 2.2.1 Energy- and momentum conservation.- 2.2.2 Semiconductor materials for direct and indirect semiconductors.- 2.3 Emission and absorption.- 2.3.1 Density of photon oscillation states.- 2.3.2 Principal mechanisms of radiative transitions.- 2.3.3 Carrier lifetime and lifetime of spontaneous emission.- 2.3.4 Gain and stimulated emission.- 2.4 Lasing characteristics of Fabry-Perot-type lasers.- 2.4.1 Lasing conditions.- 2.4.2 Dynamic characteristics of laser operation.- 2.4.3 Light current characteristics, threshold current and quantum efficiency.- 2.4.4 Basic laser structures.- 2.4.5 Modifications for the spontaneous emission term.- 2.5 Dynamic single-mode laser structures.- 2.5.1 DFB laser characteristics.- References.- 3 Longitudinal Mode Spectrum of Lasing Emission.- 3.1 Multimode rate equations.- 3.2 Spectral envelope for Fabry-Perot-type lasers (linear gain).- 3.3 Influence of nonlinear gain on the spectral characteristics.- 3.3.1 Symmetric nonlinear gain.- 3.3.2 Asymmetric nonlinear gain.- 3.3.3 Nonlinear gain, conclusions.- References.- 4 Intensity-Modulation Characteristics of Laser Diodes.- 4.1 Modulation characteristics by studying single-mode rate equations.- 4.1.1 Turn-on delay.- 4.1.2 Rate equations, small signal analysis.- 4.1.3 Relaxation oscillation damping.- 4.1.4 Upper limits for the modulation bandwidth of laser diodes.- 4.2 Influence of lateral carrier diffusion on relaxation oscillation damping.- 4.3 Modulation bandwidth limits due to parasitic elements.- 4.4 Examples for high speed modulation of laser diodes.- 4.5 Modulation and longitudinal mode spectrum.- 4.5.1 Transient spectra of laser diodes.- 4.5.2 Lasing spectra under high speed modulation.- 4.5.3 Dynamic single-mode condition.- 4.6 Modulation with binary signals.- 4.7 Harmonic and intermodulation distortions (without fibre interaction).- 4.7.1 Harmonic and intermodulation distortions for low modulation frequencies.- 4.7.2 Harmonic and intermodulation distortions for high modulation frequencies.- References.- 5 Frequency-Modulation Characteristics of Laser Diodes.- 5.1 Relation between intensity-modulation and frequency modulation.- 5.2 Current/frequency-modulation characteristics.- 5.3 Chirp effects in directly modulated laser diodes.- 5.3.1 Spectral line broadening due to laser chirping.- 5.3.2 Chirp-reduction by proper pulse shaping.- 5.3.3 Time-bandwidth product of chirped pulses.- 5.3.4 Transmission of chirped pulses over single-mode fibres.- 5.4 Possibilities of modifying the chirp parameter ?.- 5.4.1 Dispersion of the chirp parameter ?.- 5.4.2 Chirp of laser diodes, coupled to optical cavities.- References.- 6 Instabilities and Bistability in Laser Diodes.- 6.1 Repetitive self-pulsations due to lateral instabilities.- 6.2 Instability and bistability in laser diodes with segmented contacts.- References.- 7 Noise Characteristics of Solitary Laser Diodes.- 7.1 Relative intensity noise (RIN).- 7.1.1 Basic properties of noise signals.- 7.1.2 Definition and measurement of RIN.- 7.1.3 Requirement of RIN for intensity modulated systems.- 7.2 Introduction of the spontaneous emission noise.- 7.3 Intensity noise of laser diodes.- 7.3.1 Intensity noise of laser diodes by studying single-mode rate equations.- 7.3.2 Mode partition noise.- 7.3.3 Mode partition noise analysis for nearly single-mode lasers.- 7.3.4 Mode-hopping noise.- 7.3.5 1/f-intensity noise.- 7.4 Statistics of intensity noise.- 7.4.1 Statistics of amplified spontaneous emission.- 7.4.2 Probability density distribution for the total laser light output.- 7.4.3 Statistics of mode partition noise.- 7.4.4 Turn-on jitter in laser diodes.- 7.5 Mode partition noise for the transmission of pulse-code modulated (PCM)-signals.- 7.5.1 Multimode lasers.- 7.5.2 The mode partition coefficient k.- 7.5.3 Nearly single-mode lasers.- 7.6 Phase and frequency noise.- 7.6.1 Phase and frequency noise characterization in general.- 7.6.2 Spectral line shape for white frequency noise.- 7.6.3 Spectral line shape for 1/f-frequency noise.- 7.6.4 Frequency noise and spectral linewidth for single-mode laser diodes.- 7.6.5 Power-independent contribution to the linewidth of laser diodes.- 7.6.6 Correlation between FM-noise and AM-noise.- References.- 8 Noise in Interferometers Including Modal Noise and Distortions.- 8.1 Noise in interferometers.- 8.1.1 Complex degree of coherence.- 8.1.2 Interferometric noise analysis for single-mode lasers.- 8.1.3 Interferometric set-ups for measuring the linewidth and the degree of coherence.- 8.1.4 Interferometric noise analysis for multimode lasers.- 8.2 Modal noise.- 8.2.1 Modal noise for monochromatic light sources.- 8.2.2 Modal noise for single-mode lasers with finite spectral linewidth.- 8.2.3 Modal noise for multimode laser diodes.- 8.2.4 Modal distortions.- 8.3 Modal noise and distortions in single-mode fibres.- References.- 9 Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback.- 9.1 Amplitude and phase conditions for laser diodes with external cavities.- 9.1.1 Short external reflectors for longitudinal mode stabilization.- 9.1.2 Emission frequency shifts due to optical feedback.- 9.1.3 Single external cavity mode condition.- 9.1.4 Spectral linewidth for laser diodes with external optical feedback.- 9.2 Dynamics of laser diodes with external reflections.- 9.2.1 Derivation of the time-dependent electric field.- 9.2.2 Modulation characteristics of external-cavity lasers.- 9.3 Laser diodes with distant reflections.- 9.3.1 Classification of feedback regimes.- 9.3.2 Phase and frequency noise of laser diodes with distant reflectors.- 9.3.3 Intensity noise in laser diodes with distant reflectors.- 9.3.4 Coherence collapse.- 9.3.5 Tolerable feedback levels.- References.- 10 Laser Diodes with Negative Electronic Feedback.- 10.1 Modulation characteristics of laser diodes with negative electronic feedback.- 10.2 Linewidth narrowing and phase noise reduction with negative electronic feedback.- References.- 11 Circuitry for Driving the Laser Diode.- 11.1 Schemes for stabilizing the bias current.- 11.2 Laser drivers with optoelectronic integration.- References.

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1,001 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202215
2021572
2020758
2019723
2018733
2017726

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Pu Zhou

86 papers, 800 citations

John E. Bowers

58 papers, 1.3K citations

Frédéric Grillot

48 papers, 816 citations

Francois Lelarge

39 papers, 807 citations

Amnon Yariv

37 papers, 701 citations