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Lateral geniculate nucleus

About: Lateral geniculate nucleus is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3417 publications have been published within this topic receiving 196585 citations. The topic is also known as: LGN.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This proposal that the cortical and subcortical pathways are continuous, so that distinct channels of information that arise in the retina remain segregated up to the highest levels of visual cortex has far-reaching implications for the understanding of the functional organization of the visual system.
Abstract: The visual system, like all sensory systems, contains parallel pathways (see Stone 1 983). Recently, m uch emphasis has been placed on the relationship between two subcortical and two cortical pathways. It has been suggested that the cortical and subcortical pathways are continuous, so that distinct channels of information that arise in the retina remain segregated up to the highest levels of visual cortex. According to this view, the visual system comprises two largely independent subsystems that mediate different classes of visual behaviors. In this paper, we evaluate this proposal, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the functional organization of the visual system. The subcortical projection from the retina to cerebral cortex is strongly dominated by the two pathways (M and P pathways) that are relayed by the magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) (see Shapley & Perry 1 986). The importance of these pathways is demonstrated by the fact that they include about 90% of the axons that leave the retinas (Silveira & Perry 1 99 1 ) and that little vision survives when both pathways are destroyed (Schiller et al 1 990a). The P and M pathways maintain their sharp anatomical segregation through the termination of the LGN projection in layer 4C of VI (striate cortex). The complex network of connections in primate extrastriate visual cor-

1,580 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2010-Neuron
TL;DR: The response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex of awake mice that were allowed to run on a freely rotating spherical treadmill with their heads fixed demonstrated powerful cell-type-specific modulation of visual processing by behavioral state in awake mice.

1,326 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Feb 2005-Nature
TL;DR: An anatomically distinct population of ‘giant’, melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in the primate retina that, in addition to being intrinsically photosensitive, are strongly activated by rods and cones, and display a rare, S-Off, (L + M)-On type of colour-opponent receptive field.
Abstract: Human vision starts with the activation of rod photoreceptors in dim light and short (S)-, medium (M)-, and long (L)- wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in daylight. Recently a parallel, non-rod, non-cone photoreceptive pathway, arising from a population of retinal ganglion cells, was discovered in nocturnal rodents. These ganglion cells express the putative photopigment melanopsin and by signalling gross changes in light intensity serve the subconscious, 'non-image-forming' functions of circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction. Here we show an anatomically distinct population of 'giant', melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in the primate retina that, in addition to being intrinsically photosensitive, are strongly activated by rods and cones, and display a rare, S-Off, (L + M)-On type of colour-opponent receptive field. The intrinsic, rod and (L + M) cone-derived light responses combine in these giant cells to signal irradiance over the full dynamic range of human vision. In accordance with cone-based colour opponency, the giant cells project to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the thalamic relay to primary visual cortex. Thus, in the diurnal trichromatic primate, 'non-image-forming' and conventional 'image-forming' retinal pathways are merged, and the melanopsin-based signal might contribute to conscious visual perception.

1,200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 May 1991-Science
TL;DR: The development of orderly connections in the mammalian visual system depends on action potentials in the optic nerve fibers, even before the retina receives visual input, and correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells in the same eye directs the segregation of their synaptic terminals into eye-specific layers within the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Abstract: The development of orderly connections in the mammalian visual system depends on action potentials in the optic nerve fibers, even before the retina receives visual input. In particular, it has been suggested that correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells in the same eye directs the segregation of their synaptic terminals into eye-specific layers within the lateral geniculate nucleus. Such correlations in electrical activity were found by simultaneous recording of the extracellular action potentials of up to 100 ganglion cells in the isolated retina of the newborn ferret and the fetal cat. These neurons fired spikes in nearly synchronous bursts lasting a few seconds and separated by 1 to 2 minutes of silence. Individual bursts consisted of a wave of excitation, several hundred micrometers wide, sweeping across the retina at about 100 micrometers per second. These concerted firing patterns have the appropriate spatial and temporal properties to guide the refinement of connections between the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus.

1,099 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple network model is analytically studied that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific cortical interactions, and exhibits orientation selectivity that originates from within the cortex, by a symmetry-breaking mechanism.
Abstract: The role of intrinsic cortical connections in processing sensory input and in generating behavioral output is poorly understood. We have examined this issue in the context of the tuning of neuronal responses in cortex to the orientation of a visual stimulus. We analytically study a simple network model that incorporates both orientation-selective input from the lateral geniculate nucleus and orientation-specific cortical interactions. Depending on the model parameters, the network exhibits orientation selectivity that originates from within the cortex, by a symmetry-breaking mechanism. In this case, the width of the orientation tuning can be sharp even if the lateral geniculate nucleus inputs are only weakly anisotropic. By using our model, several experimental consequences of this cortical mechanism of orientation tuning are derived. The tuning width is relatively independent of the contrast and angular anisotropy of the visual stimulus. The transient population response to changing of the stimulus orientation exhibits a slow "virtual rotation." Neuronal cross-correlations exhibit long time tails, the sign of which depends on the preferred orientations of the cells and the stimulus orientation.

1,098 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202350
202281
202163
202049
201954
201856