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Laws of thermodynamics

About: Laws of thermodynamics is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2263 publications have been published within this topic receiving 63898 citations. The topic is also known as: laws of thermodynamics.


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Book
01 Jan 1962

6,437 citations

Book
01 Jan 1960

2,304 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors established the validity of the generalized second law for the infall of an entropy-bearing system into a much larger and more massive generic stationary black hole and determined a general lower bound for the increase in black-hole entropy and an upper bound for entropy of the system.
Abstract: In previous work we introduced the concept of black-hole entropy, which we identified with the surface area of the black hole in question expressed in units of the Planck length squared. We suggested that the appropriate generalization of the second law for a region containing a black hole is that the black-hole entropy plus the common entropy in the black-hole exterior never decreases. Here we establish the validity of this law for the infall of an entropy-bearing system into a much larger and more massive generic stationary black hole. To do this we determine a general lower bound for the increase in black-hole entropy, and an upper bound for the entropy of the system, while allowing for quantum effects at each stage. In passing we show that the generalized second law is a statistical law which becomes over-whelmingly probable in the limit of a macroscopic system. We also consider briefly more general situations. Finally, we give two simple examples of predictions made by the generalized second law for black-hole formation processes.

1,959 citations

Book
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a theory which goes beyond the classical formulation of thermodynamics by enlarging the space of basic independent variables, through the introduction of non-equilibrium variables, such as the dissipative fluxes appearing in the balance equations.
Abstract: Our aim is to propose a theory which goes beyond the classical formulation of thermodynamics. This is achieved by enlarging the space of basic independent variables, through the introduction of non-equilibrium variables, such as the dissipative fluxes appearing in the balance equations. The next step is to find evolution equations for the dissipative fluxes. Whereas the evolution equations for the classical variables are given by the usual balance laws, no general criteria exist concerning the evolution equations of the dissipative fluxes, with the exception of the restrictions imposed on them by the second law of thermodynamics.

1,739 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202351
202279
202159
202077
201976
201885