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About: Leachate is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11751 publications have been published within this topic receiving 197005 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Today, the use of membrane technologies, more especially reverse osmosis (RO), either as a main step in a landfill leachate treatment chain or as single post-treatment step has shown to be an indispensable means of achieving purification.

2,178 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status is discussed based on theory and model simulations, and it seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years.
Abstract: The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds). Existing data show high leachate concentrations of all components in the early acid phase due to strong decomposition and leaching. In the long methanogenic phase a more stable leachate, with lower concentrations and a low BOD/COD-ratio, is observed. Generally, very low concentrations of heavy metals are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate that the xenobiotic organic compounds in most cases do not constitute a major long-term problem. This may suggest that ammonia will be of most concern in the long run.

2,122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature has been critically reviewed in order to assess the attenuation processes governing contaminants in leachate affected aquifers as discussed by the authors, focusing on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals.

1,195 citations

17 Dec 1996
TL;DR: In the United States, Composting has been widely used in the past few decades for a variety of purposes, such as soil fertility, soil health, water quality, and sustainability as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Preface Composting: A Prospective Composting and Recycling History Philosophical Aspects and the Future of Composting in the United States Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting Conclusion References Basic Concepts Introduction Oxygen and Aeration Moisture Temperature Nutrients: Carbon, Nitrogen, pH Summary References Microbiology Introduction Microbial Populations Temperature Moisture Nutrients Inoculants Summary References Biochemistry Introduction Organic Matter Biochemical Manifestations Occurring during Composting Biochemical Manifestations Occurring When Compost Is Applied to Soil Humus Formation Summary References Stability, Maturity, and Phytotoxicity Introduction Stability and Maturity: Chemical Methods Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio (C/N) Nitrogen Species pH Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Organic Chemical Constituents Humification Parameters Humification Index Relative Concentrations of Humic Acid to Fulvic Acid Humic Substance Functional Groups Optical Density Physical Methods Temperature and Heat Output Color, Odor, Structure and Specific Gravity Plant Assays Microbiological Tests and Activities Respiration-Carbon Dioxide Evolution Respiration-Oxygen Uptake Microbial Changes Enzyme Activity Phytotoxicity Summary References Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients Introduction Essentiality and Toxicity Arsenic (As) Boron (B) Cadmium (Cd) Copper (Cu) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) Selenium (Se) Zinc (Zn) Occurrence in the Environment Environmental Consequences Leachate Characteristics of Compost Soil-Plant Interactions Type of Trace Element and Chemical State Soil Acidity Organic Matter Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Reversion to Unavailable Forms Other Aspects Effect of Compost on Trace Element Uptake Summary References Organic Compounds Introduction Organic Compounds in Various Compost Materials and Feedstocks Fate of Organic Compounds during Composting Reactions and Movement of Toxic Organics in Soil Uptake by Plants and Potential Entry into the Food Chain Conclusion References Pathogens Introduction Primary Pathogens in Wastes and Compost Worker Health Risks of Solid Waste Composting The Effect of Composting on Pathogen Destruction Survival of Pathogens in Soils and on Plants Conclusions References Bioaerosols Introduction Aspergillus Fumigatus Morphology Pathogenicity Occurrence in the Environment Occurrence in and Around Composting Facilities Dickerson, Maryland Site II, Maryland Westbrook, Maine Windsor, Ontario Hampton Roads, Virginia Beltsville, Maryland Camden, New Jersey Yard Waste Composting Facilities MSW Composting Facility Other Studies Endotoxin and Organic Dusts Conclusions References Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds Introduction Odorous Compounds and Odors Emitted by Composting Facilities Volatile Organic Compounds Air Dispersion Modeling for Composting Facilities Regulatory Models Model Parameters Gassian Dispersion and Dispersion Parameters Treatment of Terrain Reliability of Model Results Peak-to-Mean Conversion for Assessing Odor Impacts Examples of Dispersion Modeling for Composting Facilities Conclusion References Soil Physical and Chemical Manifestations Introduction Effect of Compost Application on Soil Physical Properties Soil Structure Bulk Density Soil Strength Water Relations-Soil Water Retention and Available Water to Plants Runoff and Soil Erosion Soil Temperature Effect of Compost Application on Soil Chemical Properties Cation Exchange Capacity Soil pH Electrical Conductivity (EC) Nitrogen Availability in Soil Nitrogen Leaching Summary References Utilization of Compost Introduction Horticulture Ornamental Flowering and House Plants Sod Production and Turf Grass Establishment Agricultural Crops Field Crops Vegetable Crops Silviculture Conclusion References Compost Utilization II Introduction Plant Pathogen Destruction during Composting Plant Disease Suppression Biofiltration Basic Concepts Moisture Content pH Nutrients Temperature Microbiology Application Summary References Regulations Introduction Concepts and Approaches to Regulations United States Federal Regulations State Regulations in the United States New York Tennessee Composting Facility General Requirements Facility Design and Construction Compost Standards California Canada Europe Austria Denmark Germany Italy Netherlands Criteria for Compost Quality and Facility Design: Compost Quality Criteria Facility Design Criteria Conclusion References Index

799 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of gas and leachate formation mechanisms in landfills and their adverse environmental impacts, and control methods to eliminate or minimize these impacts is presented in this paper. But the authors do not consider the potential health hazards, such as fires and explosions, vegetation damage, unpleasant odors, landfill settlement, ground water pollution, air pollution and global warming.

646 citations

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