About: Lead–acid battery is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8962 publications have been published within this topic receiving 78000 citations. The topic is also known as: lead acid battery & lead-acid battery.
Papers published on a yearly basis
30 Aug 2001
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the principles of operation and reactions factors affecting battery performance standardization of battery design selection and application of batteries, as well as a discussion of the differences between primary and secondary batteries.
Abstract: Part 1 Principles of operation: basic concepts electrochemical principles and reactions factors affecting battery performance standardization of batteries battery design selection and application of batteries. Part 2 Primary batteries: zinc-carbon (Leclanche) cells magnesium and aluminium cells alkaline-manganese dioxide cells mercuric oxide cells silver oxide cells zinc/air cells lithium cells solid electrolyte batteries. Part 3 Reserve batteries: magnesium water-activated batteries spin-dependent reserve batteries liquid ammonia systems lithium anode reserve batteries thermal batteries. Part 4 Secondary batteries: lead acid batteries industrial nickel-cadmium batteries vented nickel-cadmium batteries sealed nickel-cadmium batteries nickel-zinc batteries iron electrode batteries silver-oxide batteries nickel-hydrogen batteries nickel-metal hydride batteries rechargeable alkaline-manganese dioxide batteries. Part 5 Advanced battery systems: ambient temperature lithium batteries zinc/bromine batteries metal/air batteries lithium/iron sulphide batteries sodium beta batteries.
TL;DR: Recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed.
Abstract: There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries.
TL;DR: In this article, a mathematical model of a lead-acid battery is presented, which takes into account self-discharge, battery storage capacity, internal resistance, overvoltage, and environmental temperature.
Abstract: A mathematical model of a lead-acid battery is presented. This model takes into account self-discharge, battery storage capacity, internal resistance, overvoltage, and environmental temperature. Nonlinear components are used to represent the behavior of the different battery parameters thereby simplifying the model design. The model components are found by using manufacturers specifications and experimental tests. A comparison between the model and experimental results obtained from a battery evaluation test system was used for verification. This model can be used to accurately evaluate battery performance in electrical systems. >
TL;DR: In this paper, the main results of studies that have been carried out, during a period of more than a decade, at University of Pisa in co-operation with other technical Italian institutions, about models of electrochemical batteries suitable for the use of the electrical engineer, in particular for the analysis of electrical systems with batteries.
Abstract: This paper documents the main results of studies that have been carried out, during a period of more than a decade, at University of Pisa in co-operation with other technical Italian institutions, about models of electrochemical batteries suitable for the use of the electrical engineer, in particular for the analysis of electrical systems with batteries. The problem of simulating electrochemical batteries by means of equivalent electric circuits is defined in a general way; then particular attention is then devoted to the problem of modeling of lead-acid batteries. For this kind of battery, a general model structure is defined from which specific models can be inferred, having different degrees of complexity and simulation quality. In particular, the implementation of the third-order model, that shows a good compromise between complexity and precision, is developed in detail. The behavior of the proposed models is compared with results obtained with extensive lab tests on different types of lead-acid batteries.
TL;DR: In this article, the technology for lead batteries and how they can be better adapted for energy storage applications is described and a selection of larger lead battery energy storage installations are analyzed and lessons learned identified.
Abstract: Energy storage using batteries is accepted as one of the most important and efficient ways of stabilising electricity networks and there are a variety of different battery chemistries that may be used. Lead batteries are very well established both for automotive and industrial applications and have been successfully applied for utility energy storage but there are a range of competing technologies including Li-ion, sodium-sulfur and flow batteries that are used for energy storage. The technology for lead batteries and how they can be better adapted for energy storage applications is described. Lead batteries are capable of long cycle and calendar lives and have been developed in recent years to have much longer cycle lives compared to 20 years ago in conditions where the battery is not routinely returned to a fully charged condition. Li-ion batteries have advantages in terms of energy density and specific energy but this is less important for static installations. The other technical features of Li-ion and other types of battery are discussed in relation to lead batteries. A selection of larger lead battery energy storage installations are analysed and lessons learned identified. Lead is the most efficiently recycled commodity metal and lead batteries are the only battery energy storage system that is almost completely recycled, with over 99% of lead batteries being collected and recycled in Europe and USA. The sustainability of lead batteries is compared with other chemistries.
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