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Lead zirconate titanate

About: Lead zirconate titanate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7141 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 150878 citation(s).


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TL;DR: Ferroelectric ceramics have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.

3,143 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

16 Feb 2007-Science
TL;DR: Electroelectric arrays of lead zirconate titanate have been reported on Pt nanowire interconnects and nanorings with 5-nanometer diameters and electron emission from ferroelectrics yields cheap, high-power microwave devices and miniature x-ray and neutron sources.
Abstract: Long viewed as a topic in classical physics, ferroelectricity can be described by a quantum mechanical ab initio theory. Thin-film nanoscale device structures integrated onto Si chips have made inroads into the semiconductor industry. Recent prototype applications include ultrafast switching, cheap room-temperature magnetic-field detectors, piezoelectric nanotubes for microfluidic systems, electrocaloric coolers for computers, phased-array radar, and three-dimensional trenched capacitors for dynamic random access memories. Terabit-per-square-inch ferroelectric arrays of lead zirconate titanate have been reported on Pt nanowire interconnects and nanorings with 5-nanometer diameters. Finally, electron emission from ferroelectrics yields cheap, high-power microwave devices and miniature x-ray and neutron sources.

2,200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

14 Oct 1999-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate (SBT) thin films provide a promising alternative for FRAM applications, since they are fatigue-free on metal electrodes, they can be deposited at temperatures of ∼650°C and their values of Pr are larger than those of the SBT films.
Abstract: Non-volatile memory devices are so named because they retain information when power is interrupted; thus they are important computer components. In this context, there has been considerable recent interest1,2 in developing non-volatile memories that use ferroelectric thin films—‘ferroelectric random access memories’, or FRAMs—in which information is stored in the polarization state of the ferroelectric material. To realize a practical FRAM, the thin films should satisfy the following criteria: compatibility with existing dynamic random access memory technologies, large remnant polarization (Pr) and reliable polarization-cycling characteristics. Early work focused on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) but, when films of this material were grown on metal electrodes, they generally suffered from a reduction of Pr (‘fatigue’) with polarity switching. Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) and related oxides have been proposed to overcome the fatigue problem3, but such materials have other shortcomings, such as a high deposition temperature. Here we show that lanthanum-substituted bismuth titanate thin films provide a promising alternative for FRAM applications. The films are fatigue-free on metal electrodes, they can be deposited at temperatures of ∼650 °C and their values of Pr are larger than those of the SBT films.

1,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors trace the evolution of understanding related to the modification of sharp ferroelectric phase transition behavior that occurs in composition systems which exhibit diffuse and relaxor Ferroelectric properties.
Abstract: The paper will trace the evolution of understanding related to the modification of sharp ferroelectric phase transition behavior that occurs in composition systems which exhibit diffuse and relaxor ferroelectric properties. The focus will be primarily upon the perovskite structure families where cations of different valence occupying similar crystallographic sites in the structure appear to play an important role. Limited ordering in the Pb(B1B2)O3 systems will be discussed and possible mechanisms for self limiting to nanometer scales in some systems explored. New studies of the break up of the simple ferroelectric behavior in lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) and in lead titanate (PLT) systems will be discussed and the relevance to the general problem of relaxor behavior examined. Evidence for enhanced polarization fluctuations and super paraelectric behavior at high temperatures will be discussed and random field and spin glass models for the lower temperature state considered. ...

981 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the literature in this field, with an emphasis on the factors that impact the magnitude of the available piezoelectric response for non-ferroelectric materials such as ZnO and AlN.
Abstract: Thin film piezoelectric materials offer a number of advantages in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), due to the large motions that can be generated, often with low hysteresis, the high available energy densities, as well as high sensitivity sensors with wide dynamic ranges, and low power requirements This paper reviews the literature in this field, with an emphasis on the factors that impact the magnitude of the available piezoelectric response For non-ferroelectric piezoelectrics such as ZnO and AlN, the importance of film orientation is discussed The high available electrical resistivity in AlN, its compatibility with CMOS processing, and its high frequency constant make it especially attractive in resonator applications The higher piezoelectric response available in ferroelectric films enables lower voltage operation of actuators, as well as high sensitivity sensors Among ferroelectric films, the majority of the MEMS sensors and actuators developed have utilized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films as the transducer Randomly oriented PZT films show piezoelectric e(31, f) coefficients of about - 7 C/m(2) at the morphotropic phase boundary In PZT films, orientation, composition, grain size, defect chemistry, and mechanical boundary conditions all impact the observed piezoelectric coefficients The highest achievable piezoelectric responses can be observed in {001} oriented rhombohedrally-distorted perovskites For a variety of such films, e(31,f) coefficients of - 12 to - 27 C/m(2) have been reported

940 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20226
2021163
2020180
2019189
2018206
2017226