About: Leaf spot is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5865 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 46238 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures, and PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed againstangular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997.
Abstract: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray.
TL;DR: A procedure for the early detection and differentiation of sugar beet diseases based on Support Vector Machines and spectral vegetation indices to discriminate diseased from non-diseased sugar beet leaves and to identify diseases even before specific symptoms became visible.
Abstract: Automatic methods for an early detection of plant diseases are vital for precision crop protection. The main contribution of this paper is a procedure for the early detection and differentiation of sugar beet diseases based on Support Vector Machines and spectral vegetation indices. The aim was (I) to discriminate diseased from non-diseased sugar beet leaves, (II) to differentiate between the diseases Cercospora leaf spot, leaf rust and powdery mildew, and (III) to identify diseases even before specific symptoms became visible. Hyperspectral data were recorded from healthy leaves and leaves inoculated with the pathogens Cercospora beticola, Uromyces betae or Erysiphe betae causing Cercospora leaf spot, sugar beet rust and powdery mildew, respectively for a period of 21 days after inoculation. Nine spectral vegetation indices, related to physiological parameters were used as features for an automatic classification. Early differentiation between healthy and inoculated plants as well as among specific diseases can be achieved by a Support Vector Machine with a radial basis function as kernel. The discrimination between healthy sugar beet leaves and diseased leaves resulted in classification accuracies up to 97%. The multiple classification between healthy leaves and leaves with symptoms of the three diseases still achieved an accuracy higher than 86%. Furthermore the potential of presymptomatic detection of the plant diseases was demonstrated. Depending on the type and stage of disease the classification accuracy was between 65% and 90%.
TL;DR: This review summarizes the knowledge on pathogenic strategies employed by the fungus to plunder the host and strategies employ by potential host plants in order to ward off an attack.
Abstract: SUMMARY Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi However, some species have acquired pathogenic capacities collectively causing disease over a broad host range This review summarizes the knowledge on pathogenic strategies employed by the fungus to plunder the host Furthermore, strategies employed by potential host plants in order to ward off an attack are discussed Taxonomy:Alternaria spp kingdom Fungi, subkingdom Eumycotera, phylum Fungi Imperfecti (a non-phylogenetic or artificial phylum of fungi without known sexual stages whose members may or may not be related; taxonomy does not reflect relationships), form class Hypomycetes, Form order Moniliales, form family Dematiaceae, genus Alternaria Some species of Alternaria are the asexual anamorph of the ascomycete Pleospora while others are speculated to be anamorphs of Leptosphaeria Host Range: Most Alternaria species are common saprophytes that derive energy as a result of cellulytic activity and are found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay Some species are plant pathogens that cause a range of economically important diseases like stem cancer, leaf blight or leaf spot on a large variety of crops Latent infections can occur and result in post-harvest diseases or damping-off in case of infected seed Useful Website:
TL;DR: Methods used to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species and genotypes from almond, avocado, and strawberry, as examples are dealt with, using traditional and molecular tools.
Abstract: ilamentous fungi of the genus Colletotrichum and its teleomorph Glomerella are considered major plant pathogens worldwide. They cause significant economic damage to crops in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Cereals, legumes, ornamentals, vegetables, and fruit trees may be seriously affected by the pathogen (3). Although many cultivated fruit crops are infected by Colletotrichum species, the most significant economic losses are incurred when the fruiting stage is attacked. Colletotrichum species cause typical disease symptoms known as anthracnose, characterized by sunken necrotic tissue where orange conidial masses are produced. Anthracnose diseases appear in both developing and mature plant tissues (4). Two distinct types of diseases occur: those affecting developing fruit in the field (preharvest) and those damaging mature fruit during storage (postharvest). The ability to cause latent or quiescent infections has grouped Colletotrichum among the most important postharvest pathogens. Species of the pathogen appear predominantly on aboveground plant tissues; however, belowground organs, such as roots and tubers, may also be affected. In this article, we deal in particular with methods used to identify and characterize Colletotrichum species and genotypes from almond, avocado, and strawberry, as examples, using traditional and molecular tools. The three pathosystems chosen represent different disease patterns of fruitassociated Colletotrichum. Multiple Species on a Single Host Numerous cases have been reported in which several Colletotrichum species or biotypes are associated with a single host. For example, avocado and mango anthracnose, caused by both C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, affect fruit predominantly as postharvest diseases (25,40,41). Strawberry may be infected by three Colletotrichum species, C. fragariae, C. acutatum, and C. gloeosporioides, causing anthracnose of fruit and other plant parts (31). Almond and other deciduous fruits may be infected by C. acutatum or C. gloeosporioides (Table 1) (1,5,46,50). Citrus can be affected by four different Colletotrichum diseases (61): postbloom fruit drop and key lime anthracnose, both caused by C. acutatum, and shoot dieback and leaf spot, and postharvest fruit decay, both caused by C. gloeosporioides. Additional examples of hosts affected by multiple Colletotrichum species include coffee, cucurbits, pepper, and tomato. Single Species on Multiple Hosts It is common to find that a single botanical species of Colletotrichum infects multiple hosts. For example, C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk), which is considered a cumulative species and forms the sexual stage in some instances, is found on a wide variety of fruits, including almond, avocado, apple, and strawberry (Table 2) (6,15,31,46). Likewise, C. acutatum J.H. Simmonds has been reported to infect a large number of fruit crops, including avocado, strawberry, almond, apple, and peach (1,5,16,25,27). Examples of other species with multiple host ranges include C. coccodes, C. capsici, and C. dematium (14,56).
TL;DR: One of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment.
Abstract: The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment.