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Least squares

About: Least squares is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17700 publications have been published within this topic receiving 559094 citations. The topic is also known as: least-squares analysis & least-squares method.

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01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: In this article, the Straight Line Case is used to fit a straight line by least squares, and the Durbin-Watson Test is used for checking the straight line fit.
Abstract: Basic Prerequisite Knowledge. Fitting a Straight Line by Least Squares. Checking the Straight Line Fit. Fitting Straight Lines: Special Topics. Regression in Matrix Terms: Straight Line Case. The General Regression Situation. Extra Sums of Squares and Tests for Several Parameters Being Zero. Serial Correlation in the Residuals and the Durbin--Watson Test. More of Checking Fitted Models. Multiple Regression: Special Topics. Bias in Regression Estimates, and Expected Values of Mean Squares and Sums of Squares. On Worthwhile Regressions, Big F's, and R 2 . Models Containing Functions of the Predictors, Including Polynomial Models. Transformation of the Response Variable. "Dummy" Variables. Selecting the "Best" Regression Equation. Ill--Conditioning in Regression Data. Ridge Regression. Generalized Linear Models (GLIM). Mixture Ingredients as Predictor Variables. The Geometry of Least Squares. More Geometry of Least Squares. Orthogonal Polynomials and Summary Data. Multiple Regression Applied to Analysis of Variance Problems. An Introduction to Nonlinear Estimation. Robust Regression. Resampling Procedures (Bootstrapping). Bibliography. True/False Questions. Answers to Exercises. Tables. Indexes.

18,952 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the problem of least square problems with non-linear normal equations is solved by an extension of the standard method which insures improvement of the initial solution, which can also be considered an extension to Newton's method.
Abstract: The standard method for solving least squares problems which lead to non-linear normal equations depends upon a reduction of the residuals to linear form by first order Taylor approximations taken about an initial or trial solution for the parameters.2 If the usual least squares procedure, performed with these linear approximations, yields new values for the parameters which are not sufficiently close to the initial values, the neglect of second and higher order terms may invalidate the process, and may actually give rise to a larger value of the sum of the squares of the residuals than that corresponding to the initial solution. This failure of the standard method to improve the initial solution has received some notice in statistical applications of least squares3 and has been encountered rather frequently in connection with certain engineering applications involving the approximate representation of one function by another. The purpose of this article is to show how the problem may be solved by an extension of the standard method which insures improvement of the initial solution.4 The process can also be used for solving non-linear simultaneous equations, in which case it may be considered an extension of Newton's method. Let the function to be approximated be h{x, y, z, • • • ), and let the approximating function be H{oc, y, z, • • ■ ; a, j3, y, ■ • ■ ), where a, /3, 7, • ■ ■ are the unknown parameters. Then the residuals at the points, yit zit • • • ), i = 1, 2, ■ • • , n, are

11,253 citations

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