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Lens (optics)

About: Lens (optics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 156482 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1244415 citation(s).

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TL;DR: The authors' simulations show that a version of the lens operating at the frequency of visible light can be realized in the form of a thin slab of silver, which resolves objects only a few nanometers across.
Abstract: Optical lenses have for centuries been one of scientists’ prime tools. Their operation is well understood on the basis of classical optics: curved surfaces focus light by virtue of the refractive index contrast. Equally their limitations are dictated by wave optics: no lens can focus light onto an area smaller than a square wavelength. What is there new to say other than to polish the lens more perfectly and to invent slightly better dielectrics? In this Letter I want to challenge the traditional limitation on lens performance and propose a class of “superlenses,” and to suggest a practical scheme for implementing such a lens. Let us look more closely at the reasons for limitation in performance. Consider an infinitesimal dipole of frequency v in front of a lens. The electric component of the field will be given by some 2D Fourier expansion,

10,656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The application of electrostatic lenses is demonstrated to give a substantial improvement of the two-dimensional (2D) ion/electron imaging technique. This combination of ion lens optics and 2D detection makes “velocity map imaging” possible, i.e., all particles with the same initial velocity vector are mapped onto the same point on the detector. Whereas the more common application of grid electrodes leads to transmission reduction, severe trajectory deflections and blurring due to the non-point source geometry, these problems are avoided with open lens electrodes. A three-plate assembly with aperture electrodes has been tested and its properties are compared with those of grid electrodes. The photodissociation processes occurring in molecular oxygen following the two-photon 3dπ(3Σ1g −)(v=2, N=2)←X(3Σg −) Rydberg excitation around 225 nm are presented here to show the improvement in spatial resolution in the ion and electron images. Simulated trajectory calculations show good agreement with experiment and ...

2,236 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With the subject exposed to an alternating magnetic field, eye position may be accurately recorded from the voltage generated in a coil of wire embedded in a scleral contact lens worn by the subject. Using two magnetic fields in quadrature phase and two coils on the lens, one may measure horizontal, vertical and torsional eye movements simultaneously. The instrument described has an accuracy and linearity of about 2 per cent of full scale, a resolution of 15 seconds of arc and a bandwidth of 1000 cyles per second.

1,579 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength-spaced optical antennas.
Abstract: The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength-spaced optical antennas. The lenses and axicons consist of V-shaped nanoantennas that introduce a radial distribution of phase discontinuities, thereby generating respectively spherical wavefronts and nondiffracting Bessel beams at telecom wavelengths. Simulations are also presented to show that our aberration-free designs are applicable to high-numerical aperture lenses such as flat microscope objectives.

1,386 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A two-photon optical imaging experiment was performed based on the quantum nature of the signal and idler photon pairs produced in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. An aperture placed in front of a fixed detector is illuminated by the signal beam through a convex lens. A sharp magnified image of the aperture is found in the coincidence counting rate when a mobile detector is scanned in the transverse plane of the idler beam at a specific distance in relation to the lens.

1,373 citations

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