About: Leuconostoc is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1859 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 65937 citation(s).
29 Apr 1997-International Journal of Food Microbiology
TL;DR: Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification and the relationship of the bacteria of food fermentation and spoilage is reviewed.
Abstract: Application of molecular genetic techniques to determine the relatedness of food-associated lactic acid bacteria has resulted in significant changes in their taxonomic classification. During the 1980s the genus Streptococcus was separated into the three genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. The genus Lactobacillus remains heterogeneous with over 60 species (ymol% G+C content ranging from 33 to 55), of which about one-third are strictly heterofermentative. However, many changes have been made and reorganization of the genus along lines that do not follow previous morphological or phenotypic differentiation from Leuconostoc and Pediococcus is being studied. Phylogenetically belonging to the Actinomyces branch of the bacteria, Lactobacillus bifidus has been moved to the genus Bifidobacterium also on account of its greater than 50 mol% G+C content. It is therefore no longer considered one of the lactic acid bacteria senso strictu, which form part of the Clostridium branch of the bacteria. The new genus Weissella has been established to include one member of the genus Leuconostoc (Leuc, paramesenteroides) and heterofermentative lactobacilli with unusual interpeptide bridges in the peptidoglycan. Contrary to the clear-cut division of the streptococci, morphological and physiological features of Weissella do not directly support this grouping which now incorporates species that produce D(-)- as well as DL-lactate. The new genus Carnobacterium is morphologically similar to the lactobacilli, but it shares some physiological similarities (e.g. growth at pH 9.5) and a common phylogenetic branch with the genus Enterococcus. The review includes information on the taxonomic changes and the relationship of the bacteria of food fermentation and spoilage.
01 Jan 1993-
TL;DR: The present taxonomy relies partly on true phylogenetic relationships, largely based on morphology, mode of glucose fermentation, growth at different temperatures, configuration of the lactic acid produced, ability to grow at high salt concentrations, and acid or alkaline tolerance.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a group of gram-positive bacteria united by a constellation of morphological, metabolic, and physiological characteristics The general description of the bacteria included in the group is gram-positive, nonsporing, nonrespiring cocci or rods, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates The LAB term is intimately associated with bacteria involved in food and feed fermentation, including related bacteria normally associated with the (healthy) mucosal surfaces of humans and animals The boundaries of the group have been subject to some controversy, but historically the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus form the core of the group Taxonomic revisions of these genera and the description of new genera mean that LAB could, in their broad physiological definition, comprise around 20 genera However, from a practical, food-technology point of view, the following genera are considered the principal LAB: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella The genus Bifidobacterium, often considered in the same context as the genuine lactic acid bacteria and sharing some of their typical features, is phylogenetically unrelated and has a unique mode of sugar fermentation The classification of lactic acid bacteria into different genera is largely based on morphology, mode of glucose fermentation, growth at different temperatures, configuration of the lactic acid produced, ability to grow at high salt concentrations, and acid or alkaline tolerance Chemotaxonomic markers such as fatty acid composition and constituents of the cell wall are also used in classification In addition, the present taxonomy relies partly on true phylogenetic relationships,
01 Nov 1996-International Journal of Food Microbiology
TL;DR: It is concluded that a multivariate approach based on spectra of chemical compounds, may be helpful in order to analyse spoilage, at least for spoilage caused by lactic acid bacteria.
Abstract: The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens. The main defects in meat are off-odours and off-flavours, but discolouration and gas production also occur. Bacteria associated with the spoilage of refrigerated meat products, causing defects such as sour off-flavours, discolouration, gas production, slime production and decrease in pH, consist of B. thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp, Lactobacillus spp, Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. Analysis of spoilage as measured by bacterial and chemical indicators is discussed. It is concluded that a multivariate approach based on spectra of chemical compounds, may be helpful in order to analyse spoilage, at least for spoilage caused by lactic acid bacteria. The consequences of bacteria-bacteria interactions should be evaluated more.
01 Jun 2001-Applied and Environmental Microbiology
TL;DR: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments generated by PCR with 16S ribosomal DNA-targeted group-specific primers was used to detect lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, andWeissella in human feces.
Abstract: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments generated by PCR with 16S ribosomal DNA-targeted group-specific primers was used to detect lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella in human feces. Analysis of fecal samples of four subjects revealed individual profiles of DNA fragments originating not only from species that have been described as intestinal inhabitants but also from characteristically food-associated bacteria such as Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Comparison of PCR-DGGE results with those of bacteriological culture showed that the food-associated species could not be cultured from the fecal samples by plating on Rogosa agar. On the other hand, all of the LAB species cultured from feces were detected in the DGGE profile. We also detected changes in the types of LAB present in human feces during consumption of a milk product containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20. The analysis of fecal samples from two subjects taken before, during, and after administration of the probiotic revealed that L. rhamnosus was detectable by PCR-DGGE during the test period in the feces of both subjects, whereas it was detectable by culture in only one of the subjects.
01 Jan 2002-Applied and Environmental Microbiology
TL;DR: The combination of specific PCR and DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allows the diversity of important groups of bacteria that are present in low numbers in specific ecosystems to be characterized, such as the lactobacilli in the human GI tract.
Abstract: A Lactobacillus group-specific PCR primer, S-G-Lab-0677-a-A-17, was developed to selectively amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from lactobacilli and related lactic acid bacteria, including members of the genera Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Amplicons generated by PCR from a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tract samples, including those originating from feces and cecum, resulted predominantly in Lactobacillus-like sequences, of which ca. 28% were most similar to the 16S rDNA of Lactobacillus ruminis. Moreover, four sequences of Leuconostoc species were retrieved that, so far, have only been detected in environments other than the GI tract, such as fermented food products. The validity of the primer was further demonstrated by using Lactobacillus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rDNA amplicons of fecal and cecal origin from different age groups. The stability of the GI-tract bacterial community in different age groups over various time periods was studied. The Lactobacillus community in three adults over a 2-year period showed variation in composition and stability depending on the individual, while successional change of the Lactobacillus community was observed during the first 5 months of an infant’s life. Furthermore, the specific PCR and DGGE approach was tested to study the retention in fecal samples of a Lactobacillus strain administered during a clinical trial. In conclusion, the combination of specific PCR and DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allows the diversity of important groups of bacteria that are present in low numbers in specific ecosystems to be characterized, such as the lactobacilli in the human GI tract.