Topic

# Lift (force)

About: Lift (force) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21369 publications have been published within this topic receiving 228048 citations. The topic is also known as: Aerodynamic lift.

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a sphere moving through a very viscous liquid with velocity V relative to a uniform simple shear, the translation velocity being parallel to the streamlines and measured relative to streamline through the centre, experiences a lift force 81·2μVa2k½/v½ + smaller terms perpendicular to the flow direction, which acts to deflect the particle towards the streamline moving in the direction opposite to V.

Abstract: It is shown that a sphere moving through a very viscous liquid with velocity V relative to a uniform simple shear, the translation velocity being parallel to the streamlines and measured relative to the streamline through the centre, experiences a lift force 81·2μVa2k½/v½ + smaller terms perpendicular to the flow direction, which acts to deflect the particle towards the streamlines moving in the direction opposite to V. Here, a denotes the radius of the sphere, κ the magnitude of the velocity gradient, and μ and v the viscosity and kinematic viscosity, respectively. The relevance of the result to the observations by Segree & Silberberg (1962) of small spheres in Poiseuille flow is discussed briefly. Comments are also made about the problem of a sphere in a parabolic velocity profile and the functional dependence of the lift upon the parameters is obtained.

2,662 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the average lift coefficient, Reynolds number, the aerodynamic power, the moment of inertia of the wing mass and the dynamic efficiency in animals which perform normal hovering with horizontally beating wings are derived.

Abstract: 1. On the assumption that steady-state aerodynamics applies, simple analytical expressions are derived for the average lift coefficient, Reynolds number, the aerodynamic power, the moment of inertia of the wing mass and the dynamic efficiency in animals which perform normal hovering with horizontally beating wings. 2. The majority of hovering animals, including large lamellicorn beetles and sphingid moths, depend mainly on normal aerofoil action. However, in some groups with wing loading less than 10 N m -2 (1 kgf m -2 ), non-steady aerodynamics must play a major role, namely in very small insects at low Reynolds number, in true hover-flies (Syrphinae), in large dragonflies (Odonata) and in many butterflies (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera). 3. The specific aerodynamic power ranges between 1.3 and 4.7 WN -1 (11-40 cal h -1 gf -1 ) but power output does not vary systematically with size, inter alia because the lift/drag ratio deteriorates at low Reynolds number. 4. Comparisons between metabolic rate, aerodynamic power and dynamic efficiency show that the majority of insects require and depend upon an effective elastic system in the thorax which counteracts the bending moments caused by wing inertia. 5. The free flight of a very small chalcid wasp Encarsia formosa has been analysed by means of slow-motion films. At this low Reynolds number (10-20), the high lift co-efficient of 2 or 3 is not possible with steady-state aerodynamics and the wasp must depend almost entirely on non-steady flow patterns. 6. The wings of Encarsia are moved almost horizontally during hovering, the body being vertical, and there are three unusual phases in the wing stroke: the clap , the fling and the flip . In the clap the wings are brought together at the top of the morphological upstroke. In the fling, which is a pronation at the beginning of the morphological downstroke, the opposed wings are flung open like a book, hinging about their posterior margins. In the flip, which is a supination at the beginning of the morphological upstroke, the wings are rapidly twisted through about 180°. 7. The fling is a hitherto undescribed mechanism for creating lift and for setting up the appropriate circulation over the wing in anticipation of the downstroke. In the case of Encarsia the calculated and observed wing velocities at which lift equals body weight are in agreement, and lift is produced almost instantaneously from the beginning of the downstroke and without any Wagner effect. The fling mechanism seems to be involved in the normal flight of butterflies and possibly of Drosophila and other small insects. Dimensional and other considerations show that it could be a useful mechanism in birds and bats during take-off and in emergencies. 8. The flip is also believed to be a means of setting up an appropriate circulation around the wing, which has hitherto escaped attention; but its operation is less well understood. It is not confined to Encarsia but operates in other insects, not only at the beginning of the upstroke (supination) but also at the beginning of the downstroke where a flip (pronation) replaces the clap and fling of Encarsia . A study of freely flying hover-flies strongly indicates that the Syrphinae (and Odonata) depend almost entirely upon the flip mechanism when hovering. In the case of these insects a transient circulation is presumed to be set up before the translation of the wing through the air, by the rapid pronation (or supination) which affects the stiff anterior margin before the soft posterior portions of the wing. In the flip mechanism vortices of opposite sense must be shed, and a Wagner effect must be present. 9. In some hovering insects the wing twistings occur so rapidly that the speed of propagation of the elastic torsional wave from base to tip plays a significant role and appears to introduce beneficial effects. 10. Non-steady periods, particularly flip effects, are present in all flapping animals and they will modify and become superimposed upon the steady-state pattern as described by the mathematical model presented here. However, the accumulated evidence indicates that the majority of hovering animals conform reasonably well with that model. 11. Many new types of analysis are indicated in the text and are now open for future theoretical and experimental research.

1,224 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a linearized formulation of the surface is obtained by idealizing the surface as a set of lifting elements which are short line segments of accelerationpotential doub? lets, and the normal velocity induced by an element of unit strength is given by an integral of the subsonic kernel function.

Abstract: Approximate solutions from the linearized formulation are obtained by idealizing the surface as a set of lifting elements which are short line segments of acceleration-potential doub? lets. The normal velocity induced by an element of unit strength is given by an integral of the subsonic kernel function. The load on each element is determined, by, satisfying normal velocity boundary conditions at a set of points oil the surface. It is seen a posteriori

849 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of Reynolds number in the nominal case of an infinitely long and non-confined cylinder in a smooth oncoming flow are discussed, from about Re = 47 to 2 x 10(5), i.e., from the onset of vortex shedding up to the end of the subcritical regime.

Abstract: Apart from providing some new experimental data the paper reviews previous investigations concerning fluctuating lift acting on a stationary circular cylinder in cross-flow. In particular, effects of Reynolds number in the nominal case of an infinitely long and nonconfined cylinder in a smooth oncoming flow are discussed. The Reynolds number range covered is from about Re = 47 to 2 x 10(5), i.e., from the onset of vortex shedding up to the end of the subcritical regime. At the beginning of the subcritical regime (Reesimilar or equal to0.3 x 10(3)) a spanwise correlation length of about 30 cylinder diameters is indicated, the correlation function being based on near-cylinder velocity fluctuations in outer parts of the separated shear layer. In between Reynolds numbers 1.6 x 10(3) and 20 x 10(3), an approximate 10-fold increase in the sectional r.m.s. lift coefficient is indicated. This range contains a fundamental change-over from one flow state to another, starting off at Re similar or equal to 5 x 103 and seemingly fully developed at Re similar or equal to 8 x 10(3). (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. (Less)

835 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an in-depth review of boundary-layer flow-separation control by a passive method using low-profile vortex generators is presented, defined as those with a device height between 10% and 50% of the boundary layer thickness.

Abstract: An in-depth review of boundary-layer flow-separation control by a passive method using low-profile vortex generators is presented. The generators are defined as those with a device height between 10% and 50% of the boundary layer thickness. Key results are presented for several research efforts, all of which were performed within the past decade and a half where the majority of these works emphasize experimentation with some recent efforts on numerical simulations. Topics of discussion consist of both basic fluid dynamics and applied aerodynamics research. The fluid dynamics research includes comparative studies on separation control effectiveness as well as device-induced vortex characterization and correlation. The comparative studies cover the controlling of low-speed separated flows in adverse pressure gradient and supersonic shock-induced separation. The aerodynamics research includes several applications for aircraft performance enhancement and covers a wide range of speeds. Significant performance improvements are achieved through increased lift and/or reduced drag for various airfoils-low-Reynolds number, high-lift, and transonic-as well as highly swept wings. Performance enhancements for non-airfoil applications include aircraft interior noise reduction, inlet flow distortion alleviation inside compact ducts, and a more efficient overwing fairing. The low-profile vortex generators are best for being applied to applications where flow-separation locations are relatively fixed and the generators can be placed reasonably close upstream of the separation. Using the approach of minimal near-wall proturbances through substantially reduced device height, these devices can produce streamwise vortices just strong enough to overcome the separation without unnecessarily persisting within the boundary layer once the flow-control objective is achieved. Practical advantages of low-profile vortex generators, such as their inherent simplicity and low device drag, are demonstrated to be critically important for many applications as well.

758 citations