Topic

# Lift-induced drag

About: Lift-induced drag is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2861 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 41094 citation(s).

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01 Feb 1984

TL;DR: In this paper, a basic ground vehicle type of bluff body, the time averaged wake structure is analyzed for low and high wake flow for the low drag and high drag configurations is described.

Abstract: For a basic ground vehicle type of bluff body, the time averaged wake structure is analysed. At a model length based reynolds number of 4.29 million, detailed pressure measurements, wake survey and force measurements were done in a wind tunnel. Some flow visualisation results were also obtained. Geometric parameter varied was base slant angle. A drag breakdown revealed that almost 85% of body drag is pressure drag. Most of this drag is generated at the rear end. Wake flow exhibits a triple deck system of horseshoe vortices. Strength, existence and merging of these vortices depend upon the base slant angle. Characteristic features of the wake flow for the low drag and high drag configurations is described. Relevance of these phenomena to real ground vehicle flow is addressed.

842 citations

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04 May 1936

TL;DR: In this article, the authors give formulas for the propelling or drag force experience in a uniform air stream by an airfoil or an air-foil-aileron combination, oscillating in any of three degrees of freedom; vertical flapping, torsional oscillations about a fixed axis parallel to the span and angular oscillations of the aileron about a hinge.

Abstract: Formulas are given for the propelling or drag force experience in a uniform air stream by an airfoil or an airfoil-aileron combination, oscillating in any of three degrees of freedom; vertical flapping, torsional oscillations about a fixed axis parallel to the span, and angular oscillations of the aileron about a hinge.

411 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the lift, drag, and pitching moment about the quarter chord on a series of thin flat plates and cambered plates at chord Reynolds numbers varying between 60,000 and 200,000.

Abstract: The design of micro aerial vehicles requires a better understanding of the aerodynamics of small low-aspect-ratio wings An experimental investigation has focused on measuring the lift, drag, and pitching moment about the quarter chord on a series of thin flat plates and cambered plates at chord Reynolds numbers varying between 60,000 and 200,000 Results show that the cambered plates offer better aerodynamic characteristics and performance It also appears that the trailing-edge geometry of the wings and the turbulence intensity in the wind tunnel do not have a strong effect on the lift and drag for thin wings at low Reynolds numbers Moreover, the results did not show the presence of any hysteresis, which is usually observed with thick airfoils/wings

344 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the dynamics of lift and thrust generation by flying animals by considering the distribution of vorticity in the wake of flying animals, and derived the induced power as the rate of increase of wake kinetic energy.

Abstract: The mechanics of lift and thrust generation by flying animals are studied by considering the distribution of vorticity in the wake As wake generation is not continuous, the momentum jet theory, which has previously been used, is not satisfactory, and the vortex theory is a more realistic model The vorticity shed by the wings in the course of each powered stroke deforms into a small-cored vortex ring; the wake is a chain of such rings The momentum of each ring sustains and propels the animal; induced power is calculated as the rate of increase of wake kinetic energy A further advantage of the vortex theory is that lift and induced drag coefficients are not required; estimated instantaneous values of these coefficients are generally too large for steady state aerodynamic theory to be appropriate to natural flapping flight The vortex theory is applied to hovering of insects and to avian forward flight A simple expression for induced power in hovering is found Induced power is always greater than simple momentum jet estimates, and the discrepancy becomes substantial as body mass increases In hovering the wake is composed of a stack of horizontal, coaxial, circular vortex rings In forward flight of birds the rings are elliptic; they are neither horizontal nor coaxial because the momentum of each ring balances the vector sum of parasite and profile drag and the bird9s weight Total power consumption as a function of flight velocity is calculated and compared for several species Power reduction is one of the major factors influencing the choice of flight style A large body of data is used to obtain an approximate scaling between stroke period and the body mass for birds Together with relations between other morphological parameters, this is used to estimate the variation of flight speed and power with body mass for birds, and on this basis deviations from allometric scaling can be related to flight proficiency and to the use of such strategies as the bounding flight of small passerines Note: Present address: Department of Zoology, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 IUG, UK

326 citations

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01 Jul 1976

TL;DR: In this paper, a discussion of the considerations involved in the design of the winglets; measured effects of these surfaces on the aerodynamic forces, moments, and loads for a representative first generation, narrow body jet transport wing; and a comparison of these effects with those for a wing tip extension which results in approximately the same increase in bending moment at the wing-fuselage juncture as did the addition of winglets.

Abstract: Winglets, which are small, nearly vertical, winglike surfaces, substantially reduce drag coefficients at lifting conditions. The primary winglet surfaces are rearward above the wing tips; secondary surfaces are forward below the wing tips. This report presents a discussion of the considerations involved in the design of the winglets; measured effects of these surfaces on the aerodynamic forces, moments, and loads for a representative first generation, narrow body jet transport wing; and a comparison of these effects with those for a wing tip extension which results in approximately the same increase in bending moment at the wing-fuselage juncture as did the addition of the winglets.

325 citations