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Ligand

About: Ligand is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 67732 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1359684 citation(s). The topic is also known as: complexing agent & ligands.

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Journal ArticleDOI
07 Nov 1996-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The authors present here a classification and structure/function analysis of native metal sites based on these functions, and the coordination chemistry of metalloprotein sites and the unique properties of a protein as a ligand are briefly summarized.

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Abstract: For present purposes, a protein-bound metal site consists of one or more metal ions and all protein side chain and exogenous bridging and terminal ligands that define the first coordination sphere of each metal ion. Such sites can be classified into five basic types with the indicated functions: (1) structural -- configuration (in part) of protein tertiary and/or quaternary structure; (2) storage -- uptake, binding, and release of metals in soluble form: (3) electron transfer -- uptake, release, and storage of electrons; (4) dioxygen binding -- metal-O{sub 2} coordination and decoordination; and (5) catalytic -- substrate binding, activation, and turnover. The authors present here a classification and structure/function analysis of native metal sites based on these functions, where 5 is an extensive class subdivided by the type of reaction catalyzed. Within this purview, coverage of the various site types is extensive, but not exhaustive. The purpose of this exposition is to present examples of all types of sites and to relate, insofar as is currently feasible, the structure and function of selected types. The authors largely confine their considerations to the sites themselves, with due recognition that these site features are coupled to protein structure at all levels. In themore » next section, the coordination chemistry of metalloprotein sites and the unique properties of a protein as a ligand are briefly summarized. Structure/function relationships are systematically explored and tabulations of structurally defined sites presented. Finally, future directions in bioinorganic research in the context of metal site chemistry are considered. 620 refs.« less

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2,121 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new geometric parameter for four-coordinate compounds, tau(4), is proposed as an improved, simple metric for quantitatively evaluating the geometry of four- coordinate complexes and compounds.

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Abstract: Four Cu(I) complexes were synthesized with a family of pyridylmethylamide ligands, HLR [HLR = N-(2-pyridylmethyl)acetamide, R = null; 2,2-dimethyl-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)propionamide, R = Me3; 2,2,2-triphenyl-N-(2-pyridylmethyl)acetamide, R = Ph3)]. Complexes 1–3 were synthesized from the respective ligand and [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 in a 2 : 1 molar ratio: [Cu(HL)2]PF6 (1), [Cu2(HLMe3)4](PF6)2 (2), [Cu(HLPh3)2]PF6 (3). Complex 4, [Cu(HL)(CH3CN)(PPh3)]PF6, was synthesized from the reaction of HL with [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 and PPh3 in a 1 : 1 : 1 molar ratio. X-Ray crystal structures reveal that complexes 1, 3 and 4 are mononuclear Cu(I) species, while complex 2 is a Cu(I) dimer. The copper ions are four-coordinate with geometries ranging from distorted tetrahedral to seesaw in 1, 2, and 4. Complexes 1 and 2 are very air sensitive and they display similar electrochemical properties. The coordination geometry of complex 3 is nearly linear, two-coordinate. Complex 3 is exceptionally stable with respect to oxidation in the air, and its cyclic voltammetry shows no oxidation wave in the range of 0–1.5 V. The unusual inertness of complex 3 towards oxidation is attributed to the protection from bulky triphenyl substituent of the HLPh3 ligand. A new geometric parameter for four-coordinate compounds, τ4, is proposed as an improved, simple metric for quantitatively evaluating the geometry of four-coordinate complexes and compounds.

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1,825 citations


Book
01 Jan 1980-
Abstract: A perspective Bonding Survey of organotransition metal complexes according to ligand Ligand substitution processes Oxidative-addition and reductive elimination Intramolecular insertion reactions Nucleophilic attack on ligands coordinated to transition metals Electrophilic attacks on coordinated ligands Metallacycles Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation, hydrosilation, and hydrocyanation Catalytic polymerization of olefins and acetylenes Catalytic reactions involving carbon monoxide Synthetic applications of transition metal hydrides Synthetic applications of transition metal complexes containing metal carbon bonds Synthetic applications of transition metal carbonyl compounds Synthetic application of transition metal carbenes and metallacycles Synthetic applications of transition metal alkene, diene, and duenyl complexes Synthetic applications of transition metal alkyne complexes Synthetic applications of -allyl transition metal complexes Synthetic applications of transition metal arene complexes.

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1,793 citations


Patent
30 Jun 1975-
Abstract: Immunoassays employing antibodies and a fluorescer-quencher (F-Q) chromophoric pair, wherein one or both of the chromophoric pair are bonded to antibodies. Depending on the particular ligand of interest, various reagent combinations can be employed, where the amount of quenching is directly related to the amount of ligand present in the assay medium. In carrying out the assay, the unknown and antibody specific for the ligand of interest to which is bound one of the F-Q pair, are combined in an aqueous buffered medium. Depending on the protocol, different assay reagents are employed in the aqueous buffered medium: (1) ligand analog bonded to the other of the F-Q pair; (2) antibodies specific for the ligand to which is bound the other of the F-Q pair or; finally, (3) a combination of a plurality of ligands bonded together through linking groups to a hub molecule, usually a polymer, in combination with antibody bound to the other of the F-Q pair. The composition is irradiated with light at a wavelength, absorbed by the fluorescing molecule and the amount of fluorescence determined. By employing appropriate standards, the presence and amount of the ligand can be determined.

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1,707 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysics of a series of square planar Pt(II) complexes are reported, with well-resolved vibronic fine structure observed in all of the emission spectra.

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Abstract: The synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysics of a series of square planar Pt(II) complexes are reported. The complexes have the general structure C∧NPt(O∧O),where C∧N is a monoanionic cyclometalating ligand (e.g., 2-phenylpyridyl, 2-(2‘-thienyl)pyridyl, 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl, etc.) and O∧O is a β-diketonato ligand. Reaction of K2PtCl4 with a HC∧N ligand precursor forms the chloride-bridged dimer, C∧NPt(μ-Cl)2PtC∧N, which is cleaved with β-diketones such as acetyl acetone (acacH) and dipivaloylmethane (dpmH) to give the corresponding monomeric C∧NPt(O∧O) complex. The thpyPt(dpm) (thpy = 2-(2‘-thienyl)pyridyl) complex has been characterized using X-ray crystallography. The bond lengths and angles for this complex are similar to those of related cyclometalated Pt complexes. There are two independent molecular dimers in the asymmetric unit, with intermolecular spacings of 3.45 and 3.56 A, consistent with moderate π−π interactions and no evident Pt−Pt interactions. Most of the C∧NPt(O∧O) complexes...

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1,288 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202275
20212,355
20202,463
20192,413
20182,466
20172,498

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jan Reedijk

213 papers, 4.7K citations

Anthony L. Spek

145 papers, 4.2K citations

Michael G. B. Drew

134 papers, 2.9K citations

Ray J. Butcher

79 papers, 1.2K citations

Martin Lutz

71 papers, 2.3K citations