About: Light beam is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 57327 publications have been published within this topic receiving 551275 citations. The topic is also known as: beam of light.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media.
Abstract: Conventional optical components rely on gradual phase shifts accumulated during light propagation to shape light beams. New degrees of freedom are attained by introducing abrupt phase changes over the scale of the wavelength. A two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint such phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media. Anomalous reflection and refraction phenomena are observed in this regime in optically thin arrays of metallic antennas on silicon with a linear phase variation along the interface, which are in excellent agreement with generalized laws derived from Fermat’s principle. Phase discontinuities provide great flexibility in the design of light beams, as illustrated by the generation of optical vortices through use of planar designer metallic interfaces.
TL;DR: This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam.
Abstract: Metamaterials are artificially fabricated materials that allow for the control of light and acoustic waves in a manner that is not possible in nature. This Review covers the recent developments in the study of so-called metasurfaces, which offer the possibility of controlling light with ultrathin, planar optical components. Conventional optical components such as lenses, waveplates and holograms rely on light propagation over distances much larger than the wavelength to shape wavefronts. In this way substantial changes of the amplitude, phase or polarization of light waves are gradually accumulated along the optical path. This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam. Metasurfaces are generally created by assembling arrays of miniature, anisotropic light scatterers (that is, resonators such as optical antennas). The spacing between antennas and their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. As a result the metasurfaces, on account of Huygens principle, are able to mould optical wavefronts into arbitrary shapes with subwavelength resolution by introducing spatial variations in the optical response of the light scatterers. Such gradient metasurfaces go beyond the well-established technology of frequency selective surfaces made of periodic structures and are extending to new spectral regions the functionalities of conventional microwave and millimetre-wave transmit-arrays and reflect-arrays. Metasurfaces can also be created by using ultrathin films of materials with large optical losses. By using the controllable abrupt phase shifts associated with reflection or transmission of light waves at the interface between lossy materials, such metasurfaces operate like optically thin cavities that strongly modify the light spectrum. Technology opportunities in various spectral regions and their potential advantages in replacing existing optical components are discussed.
TL;DR: The transfer of information encoded as orbital angular momentum states of a light beam is demonstrated, which is resistant to eavesdropping and gives an experimental insight into the effects of aperturing and misalignment of the beam on the OAM measurement and demonstrates the uncertainty relationship for OAM.
Abstract: We demonstrate the transfer of information encoded as orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of a light beam. The transmitter and receiver units are based on spatial light modulators, which prepare or measure a laser beam in one of eight pure OAM states. We show that the information encoded in this way is resistant to eavesdropping in the sense that any attempt to sample the beam away from its axis will be subject to an angular restriction and a lateral offset, both of which result in inherent uncertainty in the measurement. This gives an experimental insight into the effects of aperturing and misalignment of the beam on the OAMmeasurement and demonstrates the uncertainty relationship for OAM.
TL;DR: Hanbury-Brown and Twiss as mentioned in this paper showed that photon detections in the two daughter beams were correlated: the photons were bunching together, which corresponded to a correlation in the intensity of light in two beams, which could be used to infer the angular size of distant stars.
Abstract: Classical interferometry works by detecting correlations in the phases of two waves. In Nature in 1956, R. Hanbury-Brown and R. Q. Twiss demonstrated another technique that probes quantum-mechanical correlations in the electromagnetic field. Splitting an incoherent light beam, they found that photon detections in the two daughter beams were correlated: the photons were bunching together. This corresponds to a correlation in the intensity of light in the two beams, which Hanbury-Brown and Twiss suggested could be used to infer the angular size of distant stars. Physicists now rely on the effect to probe the quantum character of complex light sources. [Obituary of Robert Hanbury Brown: Nature 416, 34 (2002)]
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of a plate of anisotropic material such as a crystal on a collimated beam of polarized light may always be represented mathematically as a linear transformation of the components of the electric vector of the light.
Abstract: The effect of a plate of anisotropic material, such as a crystal, on a collimated beam of polarized light may always be represented mathematically as a linear transformation of the components of the electric vector of the light. The effect of a retardation plate, of an anisotropic absorber (plate of tourmaline; Polaroid sheeting), or of a crystal or solution possessing optical activity, may therefore be represented as a matrix which operates on the electric vector of the incident light. Since a plane wave of light is characterized by the phases and amplitudes of the two transverse components of the electric vector, the matrices involved are two-by-two matrices, with matrix elements which are in general complex. A general theory of optical systems containing plates of the type mentioned is developed from this point of view.
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